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Strategic environmental planning in tropical countries: Elements for the sustainable management of water resources

MARIA XOCHITL ASTUDILLO MILLER RAYMA IRERI MALDONADO ASTUDILLO (2020)

This manuscript considers elements for the formulation of strategic axes in the environmental planning of the water resource in tropical countries, differentiating the strategic, functional planning and the environmental water management. Similarly, aspects of the current problem are described using the qualitative method of quadrants, caused by the poor articulation of the instruments currently applied.

Article

Strategic environmental planning Water resources Management BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA

Weevil Borers in Tropical Fruit Crops: Importance, Biology and Management

LUIS MARTIN HERNANDEZ FUENTES ALVARO CASTAÑEDA VILDOZOLA MARIO ALFONSO URIAS LOPEZ (2017)

Este capitulo de libro constituye un aporte al conocimiento de los picudos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) como plagas de frutales de alto valor comercial en México

Weevils are an economically important group of Coleopteran insects of the family Curculionidae. This is the largest insect family in the superfamily Curculionoidea. They may be found almost everywhere and more than 3000 species in near of 500 genera occur in North America. Most of them are plant feeders and others are key pests. These weevils use the snout to feed on plant tissues and notch egg-laying sites on it. Adults drill holes and feed in seeds, fruits and other reproductive parts of the plants. Some of the most notable examples of weevils include Conotrachelus spp. on avocado and guava, Optatus palmaris on anonaceous fruits, Heilipus lauri on avocado, Hypothenemus hampei on coffee berry and others. The presence of some of these species requires establishing measures of restriction when the product is for exportation. Management practices and postharvest treatments are required to ensure that the fruits will be free of larvae. In this chapter the main species of weevils in the most important tropical fruit are included, such as avocado, coffee, guava and anonas fruits. Weevils of economic and quarantine importance are considered.

Book part

weevil Tropical fruits Management Importance Pests CIENCIAS SOCIALES

La gobernanza del agua en México y el reto de la adaptación en zonas urbanas: el caso de la Ciudad de México

JUDITH DOMINGUEZ SERRANO (2006)

Hoy en día, el problema del agua es una de las principales preocupaciones a nivel internacional y local, como lo demuestran los foros internacionales que se realizan cada vez con mayor frecuencia para abordar desde diferentes perspectivas el problema de la escasez de agua y su contaminación. En México, desde hace una década se ha situado como un tema prioritario y de seguridad nacional para el país, se ha iniciado una reforma estructural de la gestión del agua que aún está por probar sus resultados. Los cambios institucionales no han concluido y en algunos casos apenas han iniciado, como la reforma legal o la constitución de los comités de cuenca. Sin embargo, las autoridades encargadas de gestionar las zonas urbanas están cada vez más preocupadas por los asuntos locales que les conciernen directamente y que preocupan a los ciudadanos. Uno de ellos es la creciente visibilidad de la crisis del agua y el impacto tanto sobre el medio físico como el social; pero aún con los datos que arrojan los informes sobre el agua en México, no se ha formado una conciencia social sobre la forma de reducirlo o mitigarlo. El cambio implicaría la actuación proactiva de todos los actores y no sólo de las autoridades. La situación de presión sobre los recursos hídricos no es la misma en las diversas regiones y localidades del país; en este artículo se presenta la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México como ejemplo del fuerte estrés hídrico ejercido sobre la cuenca, superior al soportable, pero también por ser una de las regiones donde mayores acciones se han emprendido; no obstante la situación continúa empeorando. Los cambios climáticos que se prevén para el futuro forzarán la migración a zonas urbanas además de la que ya se origina por la concentración de actividades económicas. El Segundo Informe sobre la situación de los recursos hídricos en el mundo de la UNESCO, publicado en el 2006, revela que el problema del agua radica en la mala gestión y aborda diversas acciones orientadas a superar la ineficacia con que se gestiona, a la que aplica el concepto de ingobernabilidad de los recursos hídricos. En este artículo se presentarán los retos en el corto y largo plazo para los gobiernos, sobre todo locales, tomando como análisis de estudio la ZMVM con la intención de aportar directrices basadas en la gestión integrada de los recursos hídricos que sea incluyente de las políticas urbanas locales.

These days, water issues have become one of the main concerns from both local and international levels, as international forums organized more and more often to tackle water shortages and pollution issues from a broad range of perspectives demonstrate. For the last decade, these issues have become a national security issue for Mexico, whose institutions have undertaken structural reforms in order to improve water management techniques, but results are yet to be seen. Institutional reforms are not over and, in some cases, as in the legal reforms or the constitution of basin councils, they have barely started. Notwithstanding, the authorities in charge of managing urban zones are more and more worried about local affairs concerning them and their citizens directly. One of them is how increasingly obvious water crisis have become and its impacts over both the physic and social environments. However, even with the data that official reports on water problems in Mexico shown, a collective social conscience interested in reducing or mitigating them has not been born yet. If such a thing would appear, it would entail the proactive cooperation between all social actors and not just the authorities. The pressure over water resources is not the same in the different areas in the country. In this article, I shall present the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (ZMVM) as a clear case of a region which suffers an unbearable water stress and that, despite the increasingly important number of actions that have been launched to improve its situation, does not show any sign of improvement. If all, climate changes which are foreseeable for the future will force the migration to urban zones and just worsen their whole situation. The second UN World Water Development Report, issued in 2006, reveals that water problems lie in bad management practices, and presents it with a series of actions focused on overcoming their inefficiency while introducing the concept of non-governability of resources. In this paper, l will enumerate the challenges lying ahead short and long term for governments, especial local, with the ZMVM as a case study and with the intention to con tribute a series of guidelines based on the hydrological resources integrated management practices including the urban local policies.

Article

Agua; gestión; gobiernos; políticas urbanas locales. Water; Management; governments; urban local policies. Water quality management--Government policy--Mexico--Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Administración de la demanda de agua. HC138.M4 HUMANIDADES Y CIENCIAS DE LA CONDUCTA CIENCIAS DE LAS ARTES Y LAS LETRAS ARQUITECTURA URBANISMO

Sinergia en planeación y administración estratégicas aplicada al sector agroindustrial

MARÍA ISABEL BARRAGÁN FRANCO (2014)

"Mediante la sinergia en planeación y administración estratégicas, es posible que los agronegocios generen mejor desarrollo en establecer sus planes estratégicos a largo plazo, ya que como objetivo es tener un mayor conocimiento de la situación actual en la que se encuentra por medio de un diagnóstico empresarial, esto es a través de la aplicación de la metodología UALAE (Universidad Autónoma de la Laguna, Administración Estratégica), se considera que con esto puede lograr a ser más competitivos, más formales, con más credibilidad y con visión de crecimiento a futuro, también se conocerá el punto de iniciación, desarrollo y cuando haya un posible problema de estancamiento. La investigación de campo fue desarrollada en una micro empresa del sector agroindustrial que carecía de planeación y administración estratégicas. Los resultados del plan de desarrollo se verán reflejados en ganancias y la aceptación de los actuales y nuevos clientes. Como conclusión se llegó a que hay variables económicas en la población que pueden llegar a ser una limitante para el consumo de los productos pero a la fecha han tenido buena respuesta del consumidor."

"By synergy in planning and strategic management, you may agribusiness generate better development to establish their long-term strategic plans, since the objective is to have a better understanding of the current situation that is through a business assessment this is through the application of UALAE (Autonomous University of La Laguna, Strategic Management) methodology, believes that this can be achieved to become more competitive, more formal, more credibility and vision for future growth, also the point of initiation, development will be known as there is a potential problem of stagnation. The field research was developed in a micro agribusiness company that lacked strategic planning and administration. The results of the development plan will be reflected in earnings and acceptance of existing and new customers. Conclusion was reached that there are economic variables in the population that can become a limiting factor for the consumption of the products but to date have had good response from the consumer."

Master thesis

Sinergia Planeación Administración estratégica Metodología UALAE CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Anion proportion in the nutrient solution impacts the growth and nutrient status of anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex. André.)

VIVIANA PAOLA SOSA FLORES LUIS ALONSO VALDEZ AGUILAR (2017)

"Anthurium is native to habitats characterized by low nutrient supply, however, when 33 cultivated, it demands a complete fertilization program. The objective of the present study was to 34 determine the effect of varying proportions of anions (nitrate (NO3 ), phosphate (H2PO4 ) and 35 sulphate (SO42) in the nutrient solution on the growth and nutrient status of container grown anthurium. The effect of the anion proportion was modeled using mixture analysis. Plant growth increased when fertigated with solutions containing an anion proportion of 0.78: 0.12: 0.10, 0.20 : 0.12 : 0.68 and 0.80 : 0.02 : 0.18. The contour plots showed that optimum response may be achieved in two areas, an area with high NO3 proportion (0.50-0.80) and an area with high SO4 , provided H2PO4 was high (0.09 – 0.12 for H2PO4 and 0.55-0.70 for SO42 ). The counter 41 plots indicate that high SO42 proportions combined with low NO3 and H2PO4 were detrimental 42 and that optimum growth depends not only on N concentration, as it may be attained at either high or low NO3 . Nitrogen and S concentration was higher in plants fertigated with high NO3 44 (0.55 – 0.80) and SO42- (0.40 -0.70) solutions. Shoot P was higher when plants were fertigated 45 with solutions of low (as long as NO3 was at proportions of 0.50 and SO42- at 0.35) or high 46 H2PO4 proportions (as long as SO42 proportion was at 0.35). At low concentration of S in the shoot, increasing S resulted in increasing shoot N. however, further S increments in the shoot were associated with a decrease in N. Plants fertigated with the highest proportion of H2PO4 resulted in the lowest S concentrations despite some solutions contained high S04, suggesting that H2PO4 counteracted the uptake of SO4. Nitrogen and S were predominantly diverted to the roots in control plants, however, when plants were fed with both high SO4 and high H2PO4 solutions even more S was allocated to the roots, which explains the increased growth due to the lower S concentrations. In conclusion, the increased growth of anthurium was attained at either high or low NO3 proportion and it is able to cope with high SO42- by avoiding the transport of S to the shoot, decreasing SO4 intake, maintaining a favorable internal N/S and S/P proportion, 56 and increasing P tissue concentration."

Article

Soil management Fertilization Irrigation CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Análisis filogenético de la diversidad bacteriana asociada a la rizósfera de plantas de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.)

Itzi Velázquez Sepúlveda (2010)

Instituto de Investigaciones Químico Biológicas. Maestría en Ciencias en Biología Experimental

The soil is a reservoir of microbial genetic diversity and therefore is considered a major challenge study. In particular, rhizosphere is the portion of soil surrounding the root and here is where different interactions between microorganisms and plants occur. The composition of the microbial community, especially rhizobacteria, can be influenced by several biotic and abiotic factors. It is known that bacteria play different ecological roles in the ecosystem, such as plant growth-promoting or avoiding plant pathogens to growth. However, our knowledge of bacteria-plant interactions is still limited, in particular those that cannot be cultivated in laboratory. Therefore, it is important to understand the diversity and the ecological role of cultured and uncultured bacteria. In this work, we focused on the diversity of cultured and uncultured bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) at Las Cadenas, Zamora Michoacán. To that end, the 16S RNAr genes from the metagenome of the rhizosphere were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The 16S sequences and results of the Blastn searches showed a 79% identity with cultured bacteria, while only a 21% showed similarity to uncultured bacteria. The main classes identified: gammaproteobacteria with 37%, betaproteobacteria 16%, 11% actinobacteria, Bacilli 11%, alfaproteobacteria 7%, deltaproteobacteria 5%, clostridia 2% and 11% of uncultured bacteria. Within the gammaproteobacteria class, the genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas were the most abundant, since they correspond to 29.41% of our ribosomal library. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the ribosomal sequences are grouped into clades that belong to rhizospheric bacteria.

El estudio del suelo se considera enorme ya que este alberga una gran diversidad genética microbiana. En particular, la porción de suelo que rodea a la raíz vegetal se le conoce como rizósfera y es aquí donde existen diferentes interacciones entre los microorganismos y la planta. La composición de la comunidad microbiana, y en particular las bacterias de la rizósfera puede verse influenciada por diversos factores bióticos y abióticos. Se sabe que las bacterias juegan diversos papeles ecológicos dentro de este ecosistema, en muchos casos promoviendo el desarrollo vegetal y/o controlando el crecimiento de fitopatógenos. Sin embargo, el conocimiento de las interacciones bacteria-planta es aún limitado, más aún el estudio de aquellas bacterias que no se pueden cultivar en el laboratorio. Es por ello importante conocer la diversidad y el papel ecológico que juegan las bacterias cultivables y no cultivables en la rizósfera. En este trabajo, ahondamos en el conocimiento de la diversidad bacteriana cultivable y no cultivable aislada de la rizósfera de plantas de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) de la comunidad de las Cadenas Municipio de Zamora Michoacán. Para ello, se amplificaron por PCR los genes rARN 16S del metagenoma de la rizósfera y se secuenciaron. Los resultados en búsquedas tipo Blastn mostraron una diversidad principalmente de bacterias cultivables del 79%, mientras que aquellas con similitud a no cultivables fueron del 21%. La clases que se identificaron son: gammaproteobacteria con un 37%, betaproteobacteria 16%, actinobacteria 11%, bacilli 11%, alfaproteobacteria 7%, deltaproteobacteria 5%, clostridia 2% y bacterias no cultivables 11%. Dentro de la clase gammaproteobacteria los géneros de Pseudomonas y Stenotrophomonas fueron los más abundantes, ya que componen el 29.41% del total de la biblioteca de genes ribosomales obtenidos. El análisis filogenético mostró que la mayoría de las secuencias ribosomales se agrupan en clados que pertenecen a bacterias rizosféricas.

Master thesis

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA IIQB-M-2010-0008 Rizósfera Plantas Bacterias