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Subjectivity in Social Mobility. Meanings and Emotions Around Education and Work for Rural Youth

Alejandra de la Torre Díaz (2021)

Rural Mexican youth are facing very particular conditions in rural environments whose fundamental feature is a multiple occupation of activities in different economy sectors and greater possibilities of access to high elementary education. This article is the result of a research that analyzed education and work strategies of rural youth. 23 young men and women were interviewed at three locations from the Ciénega region in Jalisco: Atequiza, Zapotlán del Rey and Mezcala de la Asunción. The text presented here explores the subjective dimension (symbolic and emotional processes) that underlay in young people strategies. It is argued that the ways of social mobility for young people are related both to subjective processes and to structural conditions imposed by a given social environment

Article

Artículo

rural youth educational trajectory career path subjetivity emotions jóvenes rurales trayectoria educativa trayectoria laboral subjetividad emociones CIENCIAS SOCIALES CIENCIAS SOCIALES

Detection and identification of phytoplasmas in the 16SrIV-A,-B, and-D subgroups in palms in Tabasco, Mexico

EDER RAMOS HERNANDEZ JULIA MARIA LESHER GORDILLO Carlos Mariano Oropeza Salín CARLOS FREDY ORTIZ GARCIA MIGUEL ALBERTO MAGAÑA ALEJANDRO SAUL SANCHEZ SOTO YESENIA GARCIA ESTRADA (2020)

The 16SrIV-A phytoplasmas are associated with the devastating disease lethal yellowing (LY) of palms. In Tabasco (Mexico), the death of Cocos nucifera, Adonidia merrillii, and Attalea butyracea palms have been suspected to be associated with LY based on symptomatology. Samples from the trunk of both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic palms were collected in three different environments: two species of palms within a rural zone and the other within an urban zone. DNA was extracted to perform a nested PCR with phytoplasma primers P1/P7-LY16SF/R16R2. A 1,345-bp fragment was amplified from the DNA extracted from each of the 29 LY-symptomatic palms sampled. Phytoplasma identification was achieved by amplicon sequencing and virtual restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. Three 16SrIV phytoplasma subgroups were detected: 16SrIV-A in C. nucifera, 16SrIV-B in A. merrillii, and 16SrIV-D in C. nucifera, A. merrillii, and A. butyracea. Phylogenetic analysis showed also that the three phytoplasma strains found in the palm species clustered with phytoplasmas reported in the literature in the three subgroups identified. This is the first report of phytoplasmas associated with these palm species in Tabasco.

Article

16SRIV PHYTOPLASMAS RFLP PATHOSYSTEM HOST PLANTS BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR DE PLANTAS BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR DE PLANTAS

Characterization of flowpath using geochemistry and(87)Sr/Sr-86 isotope ratios in the Yalahau Region, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

Jessica McKay Melissa Lenczewski ROSA MARIA LEAL BAUTISTA (2020)

The Yalahau region, located in the northeastern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula, hosts a series of elongated depressions trending north/south in the direction of Isla Holbox, identified as the Holbox Fracture Zone. Previous studies have explored the geomorphology and various hydrologic characteristics of the Yucatán Peninsula; however, there is a paucity of data concerning the interior region where the fractures are located. Strontium isotope ratios and major ion geochemistry data of the surface water and groundwater of this region serve as a hydrogeochemical fingerprint, aiding in constraining the hydrological boundaries, determining flow paths, and characterizing hydrogeochemical processes that impact the composition of the groundwater within the region. 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios indicate a different signature than the surrounding bedrock Sr ratio, suggesting that the flow throughout the Yalahau region is moving through channels faster than that of much of the Yucatán. Through major ion geochemistry and 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios, we were able to delineate at least two flow paths within the Yalahau region and identify a point of saline intrusion at least 35 km from the coast. Gaining an understanding of the hydrogeochemistry and water flow regions is crucial in determining the impact of various activities (e.g., extensive tourism, drinking water withdrawal, wastewater discharge/injection) that occur within the Yucatán Peninsula. 

Article

GEOCHEMISTRY 87SR/86SR ISOTOPE RATIOS FLOW PATH YUCATAN PENINSULA CIENCIAS FÍSICO MATEMÁTICAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO CIENCIAS DEL SUELO (EDAFOLOGÍA) BIOQUÍMICA DE SUELOS BIOQUÍMICA DE SUELOS

Modified penicillin acylase signal peptide allows the periplasmic production of soluble human interferon-γ but not of soluble human interleukin-2 by the Tat pathway in Escherichia coli

Emilio Medina Rivero VICTOR EMMANUEL BALDERAS HERNANDEZ LEANDRO GABRIEL ORDOÑEZ ACEVEDO Luz María Teresita Paz Maldonado Ana Paulina Barba de la Rosa Antonio de León Rodríguez (2007)

"Production of periplasmic human interferon-γ (hINF-γ) and human interleukin-2 (hIL-2) by the Tat translocation pathway in Escherichia coli BL21-SI was evaluated. The expression was obtained using the pEMR vector which contains the Tat-dependent modified penicillin acylase signal peptide (mSPpac) driven by the T7 promoter. The mSPpac-hINF-γ was processed and the protein was transported to periplasm. Up to 30.1% of hINF-γ was found in the periplasmic soluble fraction, whereas only 15% of the mSPpac-hIL-2 was processed, but hIL-2 was not found in the periplasmic soluble fraction."

Article

Periplasm Signal peptide Tat pathway Therapeutic protein CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Intracellular signaling pathways involved in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia; molecular targets

CRISTIAN FABIAN LAYTON TOVAR Hugo Mendieta Zerón (2016)

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disease characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of immature lymphoid cells. ALL is the most common hematologic malignancy in early childhood, and it reaches peak incidence between the ages of 2 and 3 years. The prognosis of ALL is associated with aberrant gene expression, in addition to the presence of numerical or structural chromosomal alterations, age, race, and immunophenotype. The Relapse rate with regard to pharmacological treatment rises in childhood; thus, the expression of biomarkers associated with the activation of cell signaling pathways is crucial to establish the disease prognosis. Intracellular pathways involved in ALL are diverse, including Janus kinase/Signal transducers and transcription activators (JAK-STAT), Phosphoinositide-3- kinase–protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT), Ras mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras-MAPK), Glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK-3b), Nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-jB), and Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1a (HIF-1a), among others. In this review, we present several therapeutic targets, intracellular pathways, and molecular markers that are being studied extensively at present.

Article

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia Biological markers Signaling pathways Targets Therapeutic MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD

Efecto de la suplementación de inmunoestimulantes sobre parámetros inmunológicos, expresión de genes y resistencia a Vibrio parahaemolyticus en camarón blanco Penaeus vannamei

ALAN BRYAN LICONA JAIN (2022)

"El camarón blanco Penaeus vannamei es una de las especies más cultivadas en el mundo. Sin embargo, los brotes de enfermedades infecciosas, causadas por virus y bacterias, han afectado la rentabilidad de la industria acuícola. Por lo tanto, una acción para incrementar la resistencia a enfermedades en el cultivo de camarón es el uso de levaduras, las cuales confieren beneficios en nutrición y protección contra patógenos. El presente estudio se evaluó el potencial inmunoestimulante y la protección contra patógenos de las levaduras marinas Yarrowia lipolytica y Debaryomyces hansenii CBS8339 en el camarón blanco Penaeus vannamei. Primeramente, se evaluó el potencial inmunoestimulante de las cepas (D1 y N6) de la levadura Y. lipolytica en juveniles de P. vannamei. Las levaduras se incorporaron al 1.1% en un alimento comercial para camarón y se administraron durante 21 días. Semanalmente se realizaron determinaciones en parámetros inmunológicos en hemolinfa y expresión de genes en tejido. En postlarvas, se determinó el efecto inmunoestimulante del uso individual y combinado de las levaduras Y. lipolytica y D. hansenii a través de diversas rutas de administración. Adicionalmente, se determinó la frecuencia de administración y la protección a largo plazo de las levaduras ante una infección experimental con V. parahaemolyticus IPNGS16-AHPND. Un incremento en parámetros inmunológicos se observó en camarones alimentados con levaduras, con respecto del grupo control. Y. lipolytica proporcionó un incremento en los parámetros inmunes (THC, SOD, CAT, LYZ) y expresión de genes inmunes (PEN3, LYZ, proFO). En postlarvas, la expresión de genes (PEN3 y Lectinas) y la sobrevivencia a V. parahaemolyticus incrementó significativamente con la administración individual y combinada de levaduras por vía oral; sin embargo, la mayor sobrevivencia se observó con la combinación de levaduras administradas diariamente por vía oral e inmersión. En este estudio se demostró que Y. lipolytica presenta un efecto inmunoprotector e inmunoestimulante en P. vannamei. La suplementación de la combinación de levaduras por más de una vía de administración incrementa la protección de postlarvas ante V. parahaemolyticus. La protección de las levaduras contra V. parahaemolyticus se prolongó siete días posteriores a su aplicación con 77% de sobrevivencia..."

"The whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei is one of the most widely farmed shrimp species in the world. Nevertheless, outbreaks of infectious diseases, caused by viruses and bacteria, have severely affected the aquaculture industry. Therefore, a strategy to increase the resistance to pathogens in shrimp culture is the use of yeasts, which confer benefits in nutrition and protection against pathogens. The present study evaluated the immunostimulatory potential and protection against pathogens of the marine yeasts Yarrowia lipolytica and Debaryomyces hansenii CBS8339 in Penaeus vannamei. The immunostimulatory potential of two strains (D1 and N6) of the yeast Y. lipolytica in juveniles of P. vannamei was evaluated. Yeasts were incorporated at 1.1% into a commercial shrimp feed and administered for 21 days. Hemolymph and tissue samples were obtained weekly to determine immunological parameters and gene expression. In postlarvae, the immunostimulatory effect of individual and combined use of the yeasts Y. lipolytica and D. hansenii was determined through several administration routes. Additionally, the effect of the administration frequency and the long-term protection of yeasts against an experimental infection with V. parahaemolyticus IPNGS16 were evaluated. An increase in immunological parameters was observed in yeast-fed shrimp, in contrast to the control group. Y. lipolytica supply produced an increase in immune parameters (THC, SOD, CAT, LYZ) and the immune gene expression (PEN3, LYZ, proFO). In postlarvae, gene expression (PEN3 and Lectins) and survival to V. parahaemolyticus increased significantly with the individual and combined administration of yeast by oral route, however, the highest survival was observed with the yeast combination administered daily by oral and immersion routes. In this study it was demonstrated that Y. lipolytica has an immunoprotective and immunostimulatory effect on P. vannamei. Supplementation of yeast combination by more than one administration route increases postlarvae protection against V. parahaemolyticus. Yeast protection against V. parahaemolyticus extend at least seven days after application with 77% survival. The results obtained in the present study provide a promising strategy for the potential application of immunostimulants based on yeast Y. lipolytica in shrimp culture."

Doctoral thesis

Probióticos, Patógenos, Crustáceos, Acuicultura, Enfermedades infecciosas Probiotic, Pathogen, Crustacean, Aquaculture, Infection disease BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA INMUNOLOGÍA INMUNOLOGÍA INMUNOLOGÍA

Clasificación de la señal de audio cardíaco mediante análisis tiempo-frecuencia y aprendizaje de máquinas

Classification of heart sounds using time-frequency analysis and machine learning

Leonel Orozco Reyes (2022)

La auscultación es una herramienta de diagnóstico no invasiva, de bajo costo y de sencilla implementación, que actualmente provee información importante en el diagnóstico de patologías cardíacas. Con ayuda de la auscultación se obtiene el sonido cardíaco o fonocardiograma, que es el elemento principal del análisis de este trabajo. Los errores de diagnóstico debido a la falta de médicos experimentados y las limitaciones del sistema auditivo humano han llevado al avance en el área de procesamiento digital de señales y el desarrollo de técnicas para el análisis de sonidos cardíacos asistidos por computadora. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo principal la aplicación del análisis de técnicas de aprendizaje de máquinas para la clasificación de audio cardíaco. Haciendo uso de tres representaciones tiempo-frecuencia siendo estas el espectrograma, el espectrograma en escala de Mel y la transformada ondeleta Synchrosqueezing, para generar matrices de características que mejor representen la señal de audio cardíaco. Las matrices obtenidas serán clasificadas usando redes neuronales convolucionales, en este trabajo se usarán tres arquitecturas de redes neuronales que han demostrado tener un desempeño notable en tareas de clasificación. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la correcta variación de la combinación de las tres representaciones tiempo-frecuencia, así como la correcta elección del clasificador influye en el rendimiento y el tiempo necesario para la clasificación.

Auscultation is a non-invasive, low-cost, easy-to-implement diagnostic tool that provides valuable information for diagnosing cardiac pathologies. With the help of a digital stethoscope, a heart sound or phonocardiogram signal is obtained, which is the main element of study in this dissertation. Misdiagnosis due to a lack of experienced clinicians and the human auditory system’s limitations have led to modern computer-aided analysis of heart sounds. The present work has the main objective of applying audio signal processing and machine learning techniques to classify heart sounds as normal or abnormal. The proposed methodology uses three time-frequency representations, the spectrogram, the mel scale spectrogram, and the wavelet synchrosqueezed transform. We generate a feature matrix that best represents the heart sound based on these representations. The obtained matrices are classified using convolutional neural networks; three neural networks architectures are used AlexNet, VGG16, and Ullah. These architectures have shown a remarkable performance in classification tasks. The obtained results indicate that the proper combination of the three time-frequency representations and the appropriate choice of the classifier have a significant repercussion on the performance and the time required for classification.

Master thesis

Auscultación, patologías cardíacas, transformada ondeleta Synchrosqueezing, redes neuronales convolucionales Auscultation, cardiac pathology, wavelet synchrosqueezed transform, convolutional neural network INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS TECNOLÓGICAS TECNOLOGÍA DE LA INSTRUMENTACIÓN INSTRUMENTOS MÉDICOS INSTRUMENTOS MÉDICOS