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Interethnic Variability in CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 Genes and Predicted Drug Metabolism Phenotypes Among 6060 Ibero- and Native Americans: RIBEF-CEIBA Consortium Report on Population Pharmacogenomics


Pharmacogenetic variation in Latin Americans is understudied, which sets a barrier for the goal of global precision medicine. The RIBEF-CEIBA Network Consortium was established to characterize interindividual and between population variations in CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 drug metabolizing enzyme genotypes, which were subsequently utilized to catalog their "predicted drug metabolism phenotypes" across Native American and Ibero American populations. Importantly, we report in this study, a total of 6060 healthy individuals from Ibero-America who were classified according to their self-reported ancestry: 1395 Native Americans, 2571 Admixed Latin Americans, 96 Afro-Latin Americans, 287 white Latin Americans (from Cuba), 1537 Iberians, and 174 Argentinean Ashkenazi Jews. Moreover, Native Americans were grouped into North-, Central-, and South Amerindians (from Mexico, Costa Rica, and Peru, respectively). All subjects were studied for the most common and functional CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 allelic variants, and grouped as genotype-predicted poor or ultrarapid metabolizer phenotypes (gPMs and gUMs, respectively). Native Americans showed differences from each ethnic group in at least two alleles of CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. Native Americans had higher frequencies of wild-type alleles for all genes, and lower frequency of CYP2D6*41, CYP2C9*2, and CYP2C19*17 (p < 0.05). Native Americans also showed less CYP2C19 gUMs than the rest of the population sample. In addition, differences within Native Americans (mostly North vs. South) were also found. The interethnic differences described supports the need for population-specific personalized and precision medicine programs for Native Americans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest study carried out in Native Americans and other Ibero-American populations analyzing CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms. Population pharmacogenomics is a nascent field of global health and warrants further research and education.

Producción Científica de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas UAZ


BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA Amerindians CYP2C19 CYP2C9 CYP2D6 Latin Americans drug metabolism pharmacogenetics precision medicine

CYP450 Genotype/Phenotype Concordance in Mexican Amerindian Indigenous Populations–Where to from Here for Global Precision Medicine?


Global precision medicine demands characterization of drug metabolism and phenotype variation in diverse populations, including the indigenous societies. A related question is the extent to which CYP450 drug metabolizing enzyme genotype and phenotype data are concordant and whether they can be used interchangeably. These issues are increasingly debated as precision medicine continues to expand as a popular research topic worldwide. We report here the first study in clinically relevant CYP450 drug metabolism phenotypes and genotypes in Mexican Amerindian indigenous subjects. In a large sample of 450 unrelated and medication free Mexican Amerindian indigenous healthy persons from four Mexican states (Chihuahua, Durango, Nayarit, and Sonora), we performed multiplexed phenotyping for the CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 drug metabolizing enzymes using the CEIBA cocktail and genotyped the same pathways for functional polymorphic variation. Remarkable interindividual variability was found for the actual drug metabolizing capacity of all the enzymes analyzed, and, more specifically, the metabolic ratios calculated were significantly different across individuals with different number of active alleles for CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6. The drug metabolizing capacity "predicted" from the genotype determined was not in accordance with the actual capacity "measured" by phenotyping in several individuals for CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6. Consequently, a more extensive genotyping of the main CYP enzymes, including rare variants, together with the analysis of the actual drug metabolizing capacity using an appropriate phenotyping approach will add valuable information for accurate drug metabolism studies, especially useful in understudied populations such as Mexican Amerindians. In sum, this study demonstrates that current personalized medicine strategies based on "predicted" phenotype from genotyping of alleles with high frequency in European populations are not adequate for Mestizos and Native American populations.

Producción Científica de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas UAZ


BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA biomarkers developing world omics drug metabolism variation global personalized medicine systems diagnostics