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Effect of glucoamylase enzyme extract on in vitro gas production and degradability of two diets with 25% of corn or sorghum grains

Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed Salem Ahmed E. Kholif MONA MOHAMED MOHAMED YASSEEN ELGHANDOUR (2014)

The optimal use of starch is fundamental in improving performance of ruminants fed high grain diets (Huntington 1997, Rojo et al. 2000). Many strategies were developed to increase starch digestion rate and grain energetic value such as ground, dry rolled and steamed, and harvest of grains with high moisture content (Owens et al. 1997). Amylolytic enzymes in the rumen are extracellular or cell-bound (Thurn and Kotarsky 1987), and the extracellular enzymes are the most important in the group of amylolytic bacteria (Cotta 1988). Amylases are present in protozoa (Mendoza et al. 1993 1995) and ruminal fungi (Yanke et al. 1993). Exogenous amylolytic enzymes are obtained from controlled fermentation of bacteria or fungi (Declerk et al. 1997) and they are used in the food industry for starch hydrolysis (Reilly 1985).

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of glucoamylase enzyme (GEZ) extract on the in vitro ruminal gas production (GP) and degradability of 2 total mixed rations (TMR) of 25% of corn and other of 25% of sorghum grains. The 2 diets were treated with 0, 1.5 and 3 g of GEZ protein (65% of protein) per kg of grain in diet. Diets GP were measured at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. Incubations were stopped after 72 h where pH was measured and supernatant was filtered to determine in vitro dry matter (DMD), neutral detergent fiber (NDFD), and acid detergent fiber (ADFD) degradabilities. Addition of GEZ to corn diet had no effect on kinetics of GP, whereas GEZ added to sorghum diet, at the high dose of the enzyme (3 g/kg DM), was traduced by an increase of the rhythm of GP (c) and the volume of GP at 2, 4 and 6 h of incubation. Likewise, effect of GEZ was not affected either on the DMD or cell wall (NDFD and ADFD) of both diets (sorghum or corn). Irrespective to enzyme supply, kinetics of GP and pattern of degradation of corn were generally higher than those of sorghum. A net effect of the diet and the interactions between diet and enzyme were recorded for the volume of GP at different incubation times. The use of high doses of GEZ should be tested on the pattern rumen fermentation.

Article

Corn Glucoamylase In vitro fermentation Sorghum CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Aptitud combinatoria y heterosis en cruzas experimentales de sorgo para grano

NURY DEYANIRA GUTIERREZ PALACIOS (2014)

"En México, el sorgo representa un cultivo fuente de materia prima para la industria pecuaria de alimentos balanceados, permitiendo al mismo tiempo que se disponga de proteínas de origen animal para consumo humano; sin embargo es el principal importador de grano de sorgo en la actualidad, a pesar de ubicarse entre los cuatro mayores productores del mundo. En esta situación, es de valor contar con germoplasma fundación para derivar líneas complementarias y producir híbridos viii competitivos. En este trabajo se generaron 49 cruzas, formadas durante el ciclo agrícola Primavera / Verano 2013 en la localidad Buenavista, Saltillo, Coahuila, México, por medio de cruzas entre siete líneas hembras androestériles (A) y siete líneas machos restauradoras de la fertilidad (R), mediante el Diseño de Apareamiento Genético II de Carolina del Norte (7 x 7), con el propósito de: i) estimar la aptitud combinatoria general (ACG) en líneas, y específica (ACE) en cruzas, variables de rendimiento de grano y otras de importancia agronómica; ii) calificar jerárquicamente a las cruzas simples en función de la superioridad en heterosis para rendimiento de grano. Las variables de respuesta fueron: días a floración (DF), altura de planta (AP), longitud de panoja (LP), excersión de panoja (EP), peso de mil granos (PMG), número de granos por panoja (NGP) y rendimiento de grano (RTO). Durante P / V – 2014, se establecieron ensayos de rendimiento en las localidades Rio Bravo, Tamaulipas, y Buenavista, Saltillo, México, incluyendo a progenitores, cruzas y testigos comerciales, para un total de 66 materiales. El diseño estadístico en las dos localidades fue en bloques completos al azar (BCA) con tres repeticiones, la parcela experimental fue de 1 surco de 5 metros de largo, con una distancia entre surco de 0.80 m. Se hizo un análisis de varianza (ANOVA) individual y combinado; la prueba de medias a través de Tukey (α = 0.05), el cual permitió identificar materiales superiores en rendimiento y características agronómicas en ambientes contrastantes. El análisis genético fue con el diseño de apareamiento II Carolina del Norte (Comstock et al., 1949), el cual permitió estimar la ACG de líneas y la ACE de cruzas. Con el cálculo de heterosis fue posible identificar híbridos superiores con respecto a la media de ambos progenitores. Los análisis estadísticos y genéticos se realizaron utilizando el paquete estadístico SAS (2001). ix Los análisis estadísticos individuales por localidad indicaron diferencias del efecto tratamiento para todas las variables (p ≤ 0.01), y a través de localidades, con diferencias significativas para la mayoría de las variables (p ≤ 0.01), entre localidades (excepto NGP), entre tratamientos y en la interacción tratamiento con localidad (excepto AP). El rendimiento de grano (RTO) promedio obtenido en ambas localidades fue de 2.81 t ha-1, con 3.61 t ha-1 en Rio Bravo, y 1.97 t ha-1 en Buenavista, atribuyéndose el bajo RTO de la segunda localidad a las condiciones desfavorables de temperaturas. El análisis genético identificó a los progenitores machos Pan 37 (0.54 t ha-1) y 124-2 (0.52 t ha-1) y las hembras B92 (0.29 t ha-1) y B98 (0.25 t ha-1) con los mayores efectos de ACG indicando la importancia de genes con acción aditiva en la expresión de las características evaluadas, y los más altos RTO, número de granos por panoja (NGP) y peso de mil granos (PMG). El NGP contribuyó al alto RTO de estos progenitores machos, y PMG contribuyó al RTO de las mejores hembras. Se observó una mayor similitud en cuanto al RTO entre los progenitores hembras que entre machos, sugiriendo que las combinaciones de los machos son los que influyen en el comportamiento de las cruzas. Las cruzas que presentaron efectos positivos y altos de ACE para RTO y sus componentes fueron (A92 x 124-2, A98 x Pan 37, A96 x 124-2, A626 x Pan 37 y A68 x 124-2), también mostraron alta heterosis (117.07, 147.79, 93.53, 97.93 y 117.54 %) y superiores en RTO, donde las primeras dos cruzas superaron en 26 y 19 % al mejor testigo (83 G19 Pionner). Estos resultados confirman que la presencia de genes con acción aditiva y de dominancia en germoplasma base son aprovechables para generar x buenas combinaciones híbridas y seleccionar las mejores para posibles aplicaciones comerciales."

"The sorghum is a basic crop in Mexico and a commodity for the livestock feedstuff industry, allowing a good source of animal protein for human consumption, however, Mexico is also the grain first importer, even though it is among the fourth producer worldwide. In such conditions, it is worth to count on foundation germplasm in order to generate complementary inbred lines for new hybrid varieties. This research work is based on this line of thought, and depart from a base of 49 simple crosses which were derived during the Spring / Summer, 2013 in Buenavista, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico using the North Carolina II mating design so that 7 x 7 crosses were done between male-sterile female inbred lines (A) and male restored inbred lines (R). The main objectives were i) to estimate lines general combining ability (GCA) and the crosses specific combining ability (SCA) for grain yield performance and others relevant agronomic variables; ii) to set up the simple crosses by means of their heterosis relevance for grain yield. The response variables were: days to flower (DF), plant height (AP), Panicle length (LP), Panicle exertion (EP), Thousand grain weight (PMG), Panicle grain number (NGP) and Grain yield (RTO). The performance assays were located in Rio Bravo, Tamaulipas, and Buenavista, Saltillo, Mexico during the S / S – 2014, and included 66 genotypes, integrated by the parental lines, crosses and commercial witnesses. A complete blocks design (BCA), three replicates, was used in both locations, the experimental plot was a row, 5 m long and 0.8 m between rows. The data analysis was done throughout individually and combined ANOVA, means test with Tukey (α = 0.05), which in turn led to identify yield superior crosses grown in largely different production environments. The genetic analysis was by the methodology of the method II of North Carolina (Comstock et al., 1949), estimating GCA for lines and crosses SCA. By means of heterosis calculations the superior crosses were identified. Statistical analysis were performed using SAS (2001). The statistical analysis by location identified differences for all traits, and along locations for most of the traits (p ≤ 0.01), as well as between traits, exception to (NGP), and between traits and trait by locations interaction, (except to AP). The RTO in both location analysis was 2.81 t ha-1, and 3.61 t ha-1 in Rio Bravo, and 1.97 t ha-1 in Buenavista, this low yield because of the unfavorable temperatures conditions. The genetic analysis led to identify the male lines Pan 37 (0.54 t ha-1) and 124-2 (0.52 t ha-1), as well as the females B92 (0.29 t ha-1) and B98 (0.25 t ha-1) with the highest GCA effects underlying the additive gene action in the evaluated traits, the highest RTO, NGP and PMG. The NGP was the highest component to the best male´s RTO, and so PMG for the best female´s RTO. A greater yield similarities was observed among females RTO that the one in males suggesting that the male side are the ones that influence most the crosses performance. The highest and positive SCA crosses for RTO and their components were A92 x 124-2; A98 x Pan 37; A96 x 124-2; A626 x Pan 37 and A68 x 124-2, which also showed high heterosis (117.07, 147.79, 93.53, 97.93 y 117.54 % respectively) and were high in RTO, such that the first two crosses were 26 and 19 % higher than the highest witness (83 G19 Pionner). These results confirm that the presence of additive gene action and dominance in basic germplasm can be worth use to generate hybrids to evaluate toward commercial applications."

Master thesis

Sorghum bicolor Líneas endogámicas Aptitud combinatoria CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA