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Clinical characterization of data-driven diabetes subgroups in Mexicans using a reproducible machine learning approach

OMAR YAXMEHEN BELLO CHAVOLLA JESSICA PAOLA BAHENA LOPEZ ARSENIO VARGAS VAZQUEZ Neftali Eduardo Antonio Villa Alejandro Márquez Salinas Carlos Alberto Fermín Martínez MARIA ROSALBA ROJAS MARTINEZ ROOPA PRAVIN MEHTA IVETTE CRUZ BAUTISTA MIGUEL SERGIO HERNANDEZ JIMENEZ ANA CRISTINA GARCIA ULLOA PALOMA ALMEDA VALDES CARLOS ALBERTO AGUILAR SALINAS (2020)

Introduction Previous reports in European populations demonstrated the existence of five data-driven adult-onset diabetes subgroups. Here, we use self-normalizing neural networks (SNNN) to improve reproducibility of these data-driven diabetes subgroups in Mexican cohorts to extend its application to more diverse settings.

Research design and methods We trained SNNN and compared it with k-means clustering to classify diabetes subgroups in a multiethnic and representative population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets with all available measures (training sample: NHANES-III, n=1132; validation sample: NHANES 1999–2006, n=626). SNNN models were then applied to four Mexican cohorts (SIGMA-UIEM, n=1521; Metabolic Syndrome cohort, n=6144; ENSANUT 2016, n=614 and CAIPaDi, n=1608) to characterize diabetes subgroups in Mexicans according to treatment response, risk for chronic complications and risk factors for the incidence of each subgroup.

Results SNNN yielded four reproducible clinical profiles (obesity related, insulin deficient, insulin resistant, age related) in NHANES and Mexican cohorts even without C-peptide measurements. We observed in a population-based survey a high prevalence of the insulin-deficient form (41.25%, 95% CI 41.02% to 41.48%), followed by obesity-related (33.60%, 95% CI 33.40% to 33.79%), age-related (14.72%, 95% CI 14.63% to 14.82%) and severe insulin-resistant groups. A significant association was found between the SLC16A11 diabetes risk variant and the obesity-related subgroup (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.83, p=0.008). Among incident cases, we observed a greater incidence of mild obesity-related diabetes (n=149, 45.0%). In a diabetes outpatient clinic cohort, we observed increased 1-year risk (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.51) and 2-year risk (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.31) for incident retinopathy in the insulin-deficient group and decreased 2-year diabetic retinopathy risk for the obesity-related subgroup (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.89).

Conclusions Diabetes subgroup phenotypes are reproducible using SNNN; our algorithm is available as web-based tool. Application of these models allowed for better characterization of diabetes subgroups and risk factors in Mexicans that could have clinical applications.

Article

MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD Ciencias médicas Ciencias clínicas Geriatría Diabetes Diabetes mellitus Obesidad Obesity Encuesta de Salud Nacional y Examen de Nutrición National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey México Mexico

Escolares como promotores en salud alimenticia

CINTHIA ELIZABETH GONZALEZ SOTO MARIA DE JESUS JIMENEZ GONZALEZ MARITZA LIZETH CARDENAS RODRIGUEZ (2020)

La educación en salud es una de las responsabilidades de enfermería. La obesidad infantil es un serio problema en nuestro país, más del 90% de los casos se debe a incorrectos hábitos alimenticios y sedentarismo. Este proyecto propone una iniciativa novedosa y dinámica para la educación alimentaria en escolares, por medio del juego, involucrando al niño en su propio proceso de aprendizaje y empoderándolo para la educación del resto de sus compañeros. El objetivo fue brindar a los escolares conocimientos y habilidades sobre la alimentación saludable a fin de que aprendan a discernir entre conductas alimenticias riesgosas y protectoras. La medición inicial del conocimiento sobre conductas riesgosas y protectoras fue de 9.93 mientras que la medición final fue de 9.99. La evaluación cualitativa estuvo a cargo de los maestros y padres de familia, con expresiones como: “...me gusta este tipo de proyectos ya que para mejorar hábitos alimenticios lo ideal es aprender a alimentarnos desde chiquitos...” y“es bueno que aún haya alguien que se preocupe por la salud de los demás”. Los escolares sí cuentan con conocimientos sobre alimentación saludable para discernir entre conductas saludables y no saludables, sin embargo, siguen consumiendo deliberadamente los llamados alimentos chatarra.

Health education is one of the nursing responsibilities. Childhood obesity is a serious problem in our country, more than 90% of cases are due to incorrect eating habits and sedentary lifestyle. This project proposes a new and dynamic initiative for food education in schoolchildren, through play, involving the child in his own learning process and empowering him for the education of the rest of his classmates. The objective was to provide school children with knowledge and skills on healthy eating so that they learn to discern between risky and protective eating behaviors. The initial measurement of knowledge about risky and protective behaviors was 9.93 while the final measurement was 9.99. The qualitative evaluation was carried out by teachers and parents, with expressions such as: "... I like this type of project because to improve eating habits, the ideal is to learn to feed ourselves from young children ..." and "it is good that there is still someone who cares about the health of others. ” Schoolchildren do have knowledge about healthy eating to discern between healthy and unhealthy behaviors, however, they continue deliberately consuming so-called junk foods.

Article

MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD CIENCIAS MÉDICAS CIENCIAS DE LA NUTRICIÓN Escolares Salud alimenticia Promotores en salud Schoolchildren Nutritional health Health promoters

Educación y trabajo colaborativo en UAM Azcapotzalco en época de pandemia (año 2020)

Lourdes Elsa Cabrera Jiménez (2022)

Coordinación de Posgrado de Ciencias y Artes para el Diseño

La comunidad de UAM-Azcapotzalco, en 2014, contaba con la plataforma Moodle para crear ambientes de aprendizaje en que el profesor dejaba materiales que los alumnos revisaban, y a donde enviaban sus tareas. Empero, la Pandemia declarada en marzo 2020 debido a la COVID-19, revolucionaría por completo la educación y el trabajo colaborativo en el mundo entero.

El presente artículo inicia con un breve recorrido de métodos y maneras de aprender, según diferentes teóricos, y culmina con la experiencia de ese año de pandemia en que Google Classroom, Microsoft Teams y Zoom presentaron diferentes opciones para que alumnos y profesores pudieran interactuar cara a cara en lo que fueron las plataformas que de la noche a la mañana tuvieron que aprender los miembros de la Universidad.

In 2014, students, professors and general staff at UAMAzcapotzalco, had Moodle platform to create a learning environment. There, professors left materials that pupils checked and then used to send homeworks. But, in March 2020, a Pandemic started due to COVID-19, and it created a total revolution about collaborative work and education in the whole world. This article starts with a general review of methods and ways to learn, according to different theorists; and it ends showing the experience the whole community at the University had in that Pandemic year. They had to learn, out of the sudden, the different options available by Google Classroom, Microsoft Teams and Zoom platforms so students and professors could interact face to face.

Book part

Trabajo colaborativo, pandemia, teorías cognitivas, Interacción social de la cultura. Education, Higher--Computer-assisted instruction. Education, Higher--Computer network resources. Instructional systems--Design. Social distancing (Public health) and education. COVID-19 Pandemic, 2020 Internet en la educación superior. Educación superior -- Efectos de las innovaciones tecnológicas. Educación a distancia. LB2395.7 INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS TECNOLÓGICAS TECNOLOGÍA DE LOS ORDENADORES ENSEÑANZA CON AYUDA DE ORDENADOR

El cambio educativo: experiencias de aprendizaje semipresencial para la innovación educativa en la UAM

Pablo César Hernández Cerrito Rafaela Blanca Silva López (2021)

En el escenario de crisis sanitaria, la mayoría de las instituciones educativas del mundo y de México pusieron en marcha la enseñanza remota de manera emergente para dar continuidad a sus actividades sustantivas. En el caso de nuestra Institución se llevó a cabo el Programa de Enseñanza Emergente (PEER), integrado por cuatro pilares fundamentales: 1) contingente: busca mantener la integridad de la comunidad universitaria brindando servicios de docencia vía remota; 2) multitecnología: facilita el uso de herramientas tecnológicas diversificadas, contemplando sesiones sincrónicas y asincrónicas; 3) flexible: acorde con las competencias digitales del docente y sensible a los problemas de los estudiantes, y 4) incluyente: busca integrar a la comunidad estudiantil más desfavorecida, apoyándola con tabletas y tarjetas de datos para conectarse a Internet (UAM, 2020).

Book part

Blended learning. Distance education--Mexico. Education, Higher--Effect of technological innovations on--Mexico. Social distancing (Public health) and education. LB1028.5 HUMANIDADES Y CIENCIAS DE LA CONDUCTA PEDAGOGÍA ORGANIZACIÓN Y PLANIFICACIÓN DE LA EDUCACIÓN

La universidad pública ante los retos de la pandemia. El caso de la Plataforma Digital Contingencia COVID-19 en la UAM Azcapotzalco

OSCAR LOZANO CARRILLO (2021)

Mientras se definía la estrategia que la Institución llevaría a cabo para responder a la contingencia de la pandemia, la UAM Azcapotzalco comenzó a elaborar su propia respuesta ante la crisis y la Secretaría Académica de la Unidad y su recientemente creada Coordinación de Innovación y Tecnologías Educativas, en colaboración con las divisiones académicas, diseñaron e instrumentaron la Plataforma Digital Contingencia COVID-19 de la UAM Azcapotzalco, cuyo principal objetivo era ofrecer un espacio digital oportuno de información, interacción, trámites y entretenimiento que la comunidad encontrara de manera fácil, oportuna y amigable. Con ello, la UAM Azcapotzalco en marzo del año 2020 generó una plataforma digital como enlace exclusivo de información y para que los alumnos realizaran algunos trámites, http://contingencia.azc.uam.mx/ quienes en ese momento se encontraban en periodo intertrimestral, pero con la necesidad de programar sus exámenes de recuperación (UAM-A, 2020).

Book part

Educational technology. Internet in higher education. Social distancing (Public health) and education. Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana. LB1028.3 INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS TECNOLÓGICAS TECNOLOGÍA DE LOS ORDENADORES ENSEÑANZA CON AYUDA DE ORDENADOR

Signo y conflicto en la educación digital emergente en tiempos de pandemia

JANITZIO ALATRISTE TOBILLA (2021)

Este texto aborda la crisis educativa que actualmente experimentamos desde un enfoque semiótico del autor estadunidense Charles Sanders Peirce. Se propone que la alternativa que se ha asumido globalmente para continuar los procesos educativos no sería lo que se ha llamado educación a distancia, sino un fenómeno emergente que podría entenderse como educación digital. Los conceptos de Peirce que se retoman para construir un análisis crítico de esta estrategia educativa emergente son los siguientes: signo, objeto e interpretante. Esta reflexión intenta ubicar semióticamente las dificultades para establecer una realidad educativa consistente a través de las tácticas adoptadas para subsanar el abandono de la educación presencial.

This text addresses the educational crisis that today we live. It is understood from a semiotic approach from the american author Charles Sanders Peirce. It is proposed that the alternative that has been assumed globally to continue the educational processes it´s not what´s been called distance education, but something that could be called digital education. The Peirce concepts that are taken to analyze this emerging educational strategy they are: sign, object and interpreting. This reflection tries to locate semiotically difficulties in establishing a consistent educational reality through the tactics adopted to remedy the aban¬donment of face-to-face education.

Book part

Semiótica, educación, pandemia, realidad, signo. Semiotics, Education, Pandemic, Reality, Sign. Education--Philosophy. Semiotics. Distance education. Social distancing (Public health) and education. Educación -- Filosofía. Semiótica. Educación a distancia. LB14.7 HUMANIDADES Y CIENCIAS DE LA CONDUCTA LINGÜÍSTICA LINGÜÍSTICA SINCRÓNICA SEMIOLOGÍA

Effect of yeast and essential oil-enriched diets on critical determinants of health and immune function in africanized Apis mellifera

CESAR HUMBERTO CANCHE COLLI Humberto José Estrella Maldonado LUIS ABDELMIR MEDINA MEDINA JOSE HUMBERTO MOO VALLE Luz María del Carmen Calvo Irabien Elisa Chan Vivas MARIA ROSALINA RODRIGUEZ ROMÁN María Azucena Canto Aguilar (2021)

Nutrition is vital for health and immune function in honey bees (Apis mellifera). The effect of diets enriched with bee-associated yeasts and essential oils of Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) was tested on survival, food intake, accumulated fat body tissue, and gene expression of vitellogenin (Vg), prophenoloxidase (proPO) and glucose oxidase (GOx) in newly emerged worker bees. The enriched diets were provided to bees under the premise that supplementation with yeasts or essential oils can enhance health variables and the expression of genes related to immune function in worker bees. Based on a standard pollen substitute, used as a control diet, enriched diets were formulated, five with added bee-associated yeasts (Starmerella bombicola, Starmerella etchellsii, Starmerella bombicola 2, Zygosaccharomyces mellis, and the brewers’ yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and three with added essential oils from L. graveolens (carvacrol, thymol, and sesquiterpenes). Groups of bees were fed one of the diets for 9 or 12 days. Survival probability was similar in the yeast and essential oils treatments in relation to the control, but median survival was lower in the carvacrol and sesquiterpenes treatments. Food intake was higher in all the yeast treatments than in the control. Fat body percentage in individual bees was slightly lower in all treatments than in the control, with significant decreases in the thymol and carvacrol treatments. Expression of the genes Vg, proPO, and GOx was minimally affected by the yeast treatments but was adversely affected by the carvacrol and thymol treatments.

Article

HONEYBEE NUTRITION IMMUNE SYSTEM BEE-ASSOCIATED YEASTS ESSENTIAL OIL POLLEN SUBSTITUTES NATIVE PLANTS NATIVE BEES BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA DE INSECTOS (ENTOMOLOGÍA) OTRAS OTRAS

Scarification treatments in chepil seeds (Crotalaria longirostrata Hook.

&

Arn.) used to improve their germination.

ADELAIDO RAFAEL ROJAS GARCIA MARIA DE LOS ANGELES MALDONADO PERALTA PAULINO SANCHEZ SANTILLAN MARCO ANTONIO AYALA MONTER PERPETUO ALVAREZ VAZQUEZ OMAR RAMIREZ REYNOSO (2021)

Objective: The objective was to evaluate different scarification treatments to improve germination in chepil seeds

(Crotalaria longirostrata Hook. & Arn.). Design/Methodology/Approach: The study was established in the School of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics N. 2 of the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero. The chepil seeds were weighed and counted; 2 experiments were established through a CRD with 4 treatments of 4 repetitions each. Imbibition and germination were evaluated. The data were analyzed with the statistical software package SAS® 9.0.

Article

legume emergence nutrition quality CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS OTRAS ESPECIALIDADES AGRARIAS

A comparative approach of dealing with diversity: The managing of immigration and education in Spain and immigration and health in USA

Antonia Olmos Alcaraz Raquel Martínez Chicón (2021)

This article looks at the management of cultural diversity and the construction of difference in two different contexts, Spain and the United States, and two areas of management and policy intervention, education and health. By researching these two cases with the same unit of analysis, we will show the existence of certain dynamics that create and reproduce differences and cultural-ethnic boundaries, and how these logics generate inequality between groups that are continuously essentialized. The analysis, as multisituated, and the result of ethnographic research in both contexts, takes into account that the public policies analyzed understand themselves as processes of recognition of ‘cultural diversity’ in terms of ‘interculturality’.

Article

Artículo

Interculturality education health Spain USA Interculturalidad educación salud España EE.UU. CIENCIAS SOCIALES CIENCIAS SOCIALES