Author: JAVIER ARECE GARCIA
The use of plant extract could be limited by their secondary compound concentrations; consumption of large amounts of tannins or saponins may have a direct hemolytic effect and may even cause death (Athanasiadou and Kyriazakis 2004). Moreover, long-term feeding of plants rich in secondary compounds may have detrimental effects on animal health (Mahgoub et al. 2008). Rumen microorganisms have the ability to degrade low concentrations of these secondary metabolites without any negative effects on rumen fermentation. Rumen microorganisms can also degrade alkaloids (Wachenheim et al. 1992), saponins (Hart et al. 2008), and phenolics (Varel et al. 1991) and utilize them as an energy source. Gürbüz et al. (2008) and Gürbüz and Davies (2010) illustrated that low condensed tannin content increases digestibility and gas production. They also stated that the absence of condensed tannin had improved rumen fermentation kinetics. Our objectives were to evaluate the addition of different doses of Salix babylonica extract on feed intake and average the daily gain of young lambs fed on total mixed ration.
An experiment was completed to determine the effect of Salix babylonica (SB) extract supplementation to the diet of growing lambs. Eighteen Katahdin × Pelibuey male lambs (14±2 kg live body weight) were divided randomly in individual cages into three groups and fed three diets varying in SB: a control group was fed on total mixed ration (TMR) without SB (SB0), an SB25 group was fed on TMR plus SB extract at 25 mL/lamb/day, and an SB50 group was fed on TMR plus SB extract at 50 mL/lamb/day on dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency, and in vitro gas production (GP) in lambs fed on TMR. In vitro GP of the TMR fed to lambs was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation with 0, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 mL extract per gram of DM. Addition of SB extract at low and high doses improved the DMI of lambs by 59.9 and 33.2 %, respectively. Relative to the control, low and high extract doses achieved greater lamb ADG during the experimental period. The asymptotic GP increased (P <0.05) with increasing dose of SB extract without affecting the rate of GP or the initial delay before GP begins. Linear increases for in vitro GP with advancing time with different SB extract doses were observed. It is suggested that the use of S. babylonica extract with the rate of 25 mL/lamb/day is beneficial to young lamb’s performance growth and thus can be safely used as a feed additive in diets without any negative effects on animal health.
A study was conducted from December to April 2013, with the aim of evaluating a system of selective antiparasitic treatments using the FAMACHA© color chart compared with a conventional suppressive deworming system every 30 days in Pelibuey ewes during lactation. For the study, 54 ewes were used. They were randomly divided into two groups: FAMACHA and chemical treatments. The ewes in the first group received selective treatment depending on the ocular mucosa coloration (FAMACHA) and body condition score (BCS), while in the second group (chemical) all the animals remained under routine deworming every 30 days. Fecal nematode egg counts, proportion of third-stage trichostrongylid larvae, body condition, coloration of the ocular mucosa, and packed cell volume in the ewes were determined, while in lambs only body weight (BW) was recorded. No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in any of the studied variables between groups; however, the use of antiparasitic drugs was reduced during the experimental period in the FAMACHA group and no deaths of lambs or ewes were recorded. The results indicate that during the lactation of ewes, a strategy of selective treatments can be implemented without showing deterioration in major health and productive parameters of these animals.
AGUSTIN OLMEDO JUAREZ ROLANDO ROJO RUBIO Javier Arece García Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed Salem ERNESTO MORALES ALMARAZ BENITO ALBARRAN PORTILLO HECTOR AARON LEE RANGEL José Fernando Vázquez Armijo (2015)
Larvicidal effect was evaluated using acacia cochliacantha leaf
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro lethal effect of a hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) from Acacia cochliacantha leaf against three gastrointestinal nematodes species (Haemonchus contortus, H. placei and Cooperiapunctata) of domestic ruminants. The HAE was assessed using five concentrations: 100, 125, 175, 150 and 200 mg/ml; 0.5% Ivermectin was used as a positive control and distilled water, as negative control. The data were normalized using the square root and analysed with a completely randomized design through ANOVA analysis using the general linealmodel (GLM) of the SAS program. The HAE tannin conten was determined through spectrophotometry (UV-visible) and the other major phenols, were identified by chromatographic processes. The results showed an in vitro larvicidal activity of the HAE against the three assessed nematode species with all assessed concentrations. A clear HAE increased concentration dependence effect was observed. The highest activity of the HAE was obtained at the highest concentration (close to 100%, P < 0.05). This result was similar to the one obtained with Ivermectin. On the other hand, the chemical analysis of HAE showed the presence of tannins, caffeoyls and coumaroyl derivates and quercetin as the main compounds. The results suggest that the HAE from this plant species pos- sess in vitro anthelmintic properties. The identified com- pounds in this study would good candidates for further in vivo researches.
This study received financial support from CONACYT-Mexico (Project number 251244), INIFAP (Project number 9454133183, through the Researcher Retaining Program).
CESAR GARCIA HERNANDEZ JAVIER ARECE GARCIA ROLANDO ROJO RUBIO GERMAN DAVID MENDOZA MARTINEZ BENITO ALBARRAN PORTILLO JOSE FERNANDO VAZQUEZ ARMIJO LEONEL AVENDAÑO REYES AGUSTIN OLMEDO JUAREZ CARINE MARIE MAGDELEINE YOEL LOPEZ LEYVA (2017)
Abstract Forty-five Pelibuey sheep were experimentally infested with nematodes to evaluate the effect of three free condensed tannin (FCT) levels of Lysiloma acapulcensis on fecal egg counts (FECs), packed cell volumes (PCV), ocular mucosa colors (OMC), average daily gain (ADG), and adult nematode count. Five treatments were used: 12.5, 25.0, and 37.5 mg of FCT kg−1 of body weight (BW); sterile water (control); and ivermectine (0.22 mg kg−1 of BW) as chemical group. The data were processed through repeated measure- ment analysis. Even though the three FCT doses decreased (P < 0.05) the FEC, the highest reduction was obtained with 37.5 mg kg−1 of BW. No differences were observed in PCV and OMC. Higher ADG (P < 0.05) was observed with 37.5 mg kg−1 of BW of FCT. The count of adult nematodes (females and males) in the higher dose of FCT was similar to chemical treatment. Dose of 37.5 mg kg−1 of BW decreased the parasite infection and improved the lamb performance. Therefore, this dose could be used as a nutraceutic product in sheep production.
This work was undertaken with funds from the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (Project UAEM 1026/2014RIFC). Our gratitude also goes to the Mexican National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT) for the grant received by Cesar García Hernández.
Javier Arece García Yoel López Leyva AGUSTIN OLMEDO JUAREZ GABRIEL RAMIREZ VARGAS DAVID EMANUEL REYES GUERRERO María Eugenia López Arellano Pedro Mendoza de Gives Michal Varady ROLANDO ROJO RUBIO ROBERTO GONZALEZ GARDUÑO (2017)
This study determined the efficacies of four classes of anthelmintics (AH) in a goat flock where anthelmintic resistance (AR) to ivermectin was suspected. We selected and randomly distributed 105 animals with >500 eggs per gram of feces into seven groups of 15 animals: an untreated con- trol group and groups treated with ivermectin, eprinomectin, albendazole sulfoxide, albendazole, levamisole, and closantel. The goats were individually weighed and treated with the recommended dose. Fecal samples were collected 14 days post-treatment to determine the fecal egg counts and for a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Coprocultures were also performed for identifying any resistant genera. A molecular assay (polymerase chain reaction, PCR) was used to confirm benzimidazole resistance. The FECRTs for the ivermectin, eprinomectin, albendazole sulfoxide, and albendazole treatments were <90 %, indicating multiple anthelmintic resistance, all in Haemonchus spp. Levamisole had a FECRT confidence interval <90 %, indicating a moderate level of AR. The PCR detected the ß-tubulin alleles responsible for benzimidazole resistance, confirming AR. This study is the first monospecific report of AR in goats in Cuba, with a total failure of macrocyclic lac- tones anthelmintic class.
The project was funded by the Cuban Ministry of Agriculture (Pro- ject No. P131LH001-0072).