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Assessment of cognitive performance among Mexican children and adolescents afflicted by simple to complex congenital heart diseases. Preliminary study

GABRIEL GONZALEZ GONZALEZ FRANCISCO BERNARDO PLIEGO RIVERO MARIO ARTURO RODRIGUEZ CAMACHO GUSTAVO GABRIEL MENDIETA ALCANTARA GLORIA ADELINA OTERO OJEDA (2018)

Among patients afflicted by congenital heart diseases (CHD) diverse, and complex neurological alterations are commonly observed. These have neither been completely identified nor understood. With the aim of identifying specific neurocognitive alterations among children and adolescents afflicted by CHD we investigated the possible presence of cognitive disorders related to the presence of cardiovascular disease with the aid of a sample of 20 patients (12 teenagers and 8 school-age children). Taken altogether, 9 of them were afflicted by simple and 11 by complex pathologies (respectively, CHDs/c). The Neuropsychological Test for Memory and Attention (Neuropsi), standardized for Mexico by Ostrosky et al. (2004), was individually applied to all participants. The information of cognitive performance was obtained in relation to the categories attention and memory, and the same areas allowed us to assess global performance. CHDc subjects performed significantly poorer compared to CHDs in i) attention and executive function, ii) memory and iii) attention and memory. Likewise, among CHDc subjects a significantly higher proportion of cases were diagnosed as abnormal in the same variables. Also a significant and negative correlation was determined between CHD severity and neuropsychological scoring. Children and adolescents afflicted by CHD are at high risk of developing cognitive function alterations including aspects of memory, attention and executive functions, alterations which are likely to be worst among those cases carrying CHDc conditions.

Article

Neuropsychological disorder Neurodevelopmental disorders Memory Attention Executive functions MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD

Percepción de la Embarazada sobre la atención brindada en el control prenatal

ALEJANDRA DEL CARMEN MACIEL VILCHIS Flaviano Rojas Carbajal GLORIA ANGELES AVILA (2015)

El objetivo del estudio fue identificar la percepción de la embarazada sobre la atención recibida durante el control prenatal, con la finalidad de proponer un programa de seguimiento que permita reconocer a mujeres con riesgo durante el embarazo, así como favorecer la viabilidad para ella y su hijo. Metodología: estudio cualitativo, muestra de nueve mujeres embarazadas de los centros rurales dispersos que comprenden la coordinación Municipal de salud de Temascalcingo, Estado de México, en la antigua región mazahua-otomí. El análisis de los resultados se hizo a partir de los núcleos temáticos. Resultados: en relación con la percepción de las embarazadas, éstas consideran que los centros de salud rurales dispersos no son accesibles de acuerdo con su ubicación geográfica; las mujeres indígenas son discriminadas de diferentes maneras, en diversas ocasiones no les otorgan la consulta, ni respetan los turnos de las mismas y el proceso de referencia de las mujeres embarazadas hacia el segundo nivel, no da los resultados esperados, a pesar de que se realicen las actividades adecuadas en el primer nivel en la atención prenatal. Conclusión: la percepción que tienen las mujeres embarazadas sobre la atención en el control prenatal, es que la mujer tiende a buscar alternativas para su atención o simplemente no acude hasta que se presente un factor de riesgo o el desarrollo del parto, con lo cual se desencadenaría en un alto riesgo de mujeres con complicaciones sin seguimiento, expuestas a presentar muerte materna o muerte perinatal. Abstract The aim of the study was to identify the perception of the pregnant woman on the care provided during antenatal care, with the aim of proposing a monitoring program to identify women at risk during pregnancy, and to facilitate the feasibility for her and her son. The research was with hermeneutical approach, which worked with nine pregnant women dispersed rural centers comprising health coordination Township Temascalcingo of old Mazahua and Otomí region in the State of Mexico. The analysis of the results was based on thematic units with the following findings: according to the perception of pregnant, consider the scattered rural health centers are not accessible, according to its geographical location; Indigenous women are discriminated against in different ways, many of these occasions not granting the query, or be skipped according to the hour of his shift consultation and that the delivery of pregnant women to the second level does not give the expected results, although appropriate at the first level within the anc activities are performed. It is concluded that the perception of pregnant on care in the prenatal control “is crucial” because women tend to seek alternatives to their attention, or not go until present a risk factor or labor progress, which can be triggered at a high risk of women with complications untracked exposed to submit maternal death or perinatal death. Resumo O objetivo é identificar a percepção de gestantes sobre os cuidados no pré-natal, com o objetivo de propor um programa de monitoramento para identificar mulheres em risco para a gravidez, e para incentivar a viabilidade bom para ela e seu filho. A pesquisa etnográfica foi, a partir de uma abordagem qualitativa, onde as mulheres grávidas a trabalhar com nove dispersos centros rurais de saúde que compõem a coordenação Township Temascalcingo de Mazahua antiga e região Otomi no estado do México. Análise temática produz os seguintes resultados: os centros de saúde rurais dispersas não são acessíveis, de acordo com sua localização geográfica, as mulheres indígenas são discriminadas de formas diferentes, muitas dessas ocasiões que não dão a consulta, ou ser ignorado quando tocar a sua vez para consulta e que o envio de mulheres grávidas para o segundo nível não dá os resultados esperados, apesar de que é feito as atividades certas no primeiro nível dentro do anc. Conclui-se que a percepção do atendimento das gestantes no pré-natal “é crítica”, porque, as mulheres tendem a buscar alternativas para sua atenção, ou simplesmente não ir até você apresentar um fator de risco ou de desenvolvimento entrega e tal situação pode resultar em morte materna ou morte perinatal.

Article

Control prenatal Percepción Perception Attention Pregnancy prevention Percepção Atenção Prevenção da gravidez MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD

Saberes etnobotánicos de la herbolaria Totonaca y el desarrollo rural: estudio de caso Ejido Riachuelos, Tecolutla Veracruz

PASCUAL ALEXANDER JIMENEZ CABRERA (2015)

Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en Desarrollo Rural).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2015.

La amenaza a la biodiversidad de las áreas rurales persiste, principalmente por las altas tasas de deforestación, la ampliación de la frontera agrícola, y la contaminación de suelo y agua. Los vínculos tan estrechos entre ésta con la diversidad cultural, hacen suponer una erosión de los saberes autóctonos, vinculados al uso y aprovechamiento de sus recursos fitogenéticos. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar el proceso de transmisión e intercambio de saberes en medicina tradicional en dos principales vertientes: 1) entre integrantes de la familia y, 2) entre la medicina tradicional y su complementariedad con la medicina alópata. El estudio se realizó en el año 2013 en la región Totonaca del Estado de Veracruz. El enfoque de la investigación fue de carácter mixto con alcance descriptivo-correlacional y explicativo. El diseño de tipo no experimental mediante muestreo de juicio a unidades accesibles y voluntarios. Se aplicaron 53 cuestionarios a jefes de familia abordándose aspectos como: características sociodemográficas, adquisición y transmisión de conocimientos, así como el acto sincrético de la atención mixta (medicina tradicional y alópata). Los resultados muestran que mayoritariamente son la madre y el padre los que propician el intercambio de información hacia los hijos, en donde la inducción en el consumo de remedios caseros constituye un elemento central, sin embargo se percibe pérdida de saberes de sus antepasados. La medicina tradicional se conserva en el nivel local y poco comercial, y en la práctica coexiste con la medicina alópata, donde los actores reconocen sus respectivos ámbitos de competencia, alcances y complementariedad para la atención a la salud comunitaria. _______________ ETHNOBOTANICAL KNOWLEDGE OF TOTONAC HERBAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY EJIDO RIACHUELOS, TECOLUTLA VERACRUZ. ABSTRACT: The threat to biodiversity persists in rural areas, mainly due to high rates of deforestation, the expansion of the agricultural frontier, and contamination of soil and water. The close links between biodiversity and cultural diversity, indicate that there are an erosion of indigenous knowledge, linked to the use and exploitation of their genetic resources. The purpose of this study was to analyze the process of transfer and exchange of knowledge in traditional medicine in two main aspects: 1) between family members and 2) between traditional medicine and its complement with allopathic medicine. The study was conducted in 2013 in the Totonaca region of Veracruz State. The focus of the research was mixed with a correlational descriptive and explanatory scope. The non experimental design was done by trial sampling of accessible units and volunteers. 53 questionnaires were administered to householders addressing issues such as: sociodemographic characteristics, transmission and acquisition of knowledge, and the syncretic act of the mixed attention. The results show that it is mostly the mother and father that promote the exchange of information to children, where the induction to consume home remedies is a central element; however, a loss of knowledge of their ancestors was perceived. Traditional medicine is kept locally and is little commercial, in practice coexists with allopathic medicine; in this process the actors recognize their respective areas of competence.

Master thesis

Medicina herbolaria Atención mixta Saberes autóctonos Región Totonaca Herbal medicine Mixed attention Totonaca region Desarrollo Rural Maestría BOTÁNICA GENERAL

Unpacking ‘sustainable’ cocoa: do sustainability standards, development projects and policies address producer concerns in Indonesia, Cameroon and Peru?

Jason Donovan Trent Blare (2018)

‘Sustainable cocoa’ has attracted considerable attention. However, stakeholders in cocoa development may differ in their understanding of sustainable cocoa, their interests and actions taken in advancing sustainable cocoa. This article analyses cocoa sustainability at nested scales and analyses to what extent sustainability standards, policies and development projects address sustainability concerns and contribute to ecosystem services. The analysis is based on literature reviews and key informant interviews in Sulawesi (Indonesia), Ucayali (Peru) and Centre Region (Cameroon). Producers in all three countries shared concerns of price volatility, weak farmer organizations and dependence on few buyers. Producers in sulawesi and centre region compensated low returns to cocoa production by diversification of cocoa systems. Public and private development actors were concerned with low production volumes. Research has so far focused on biodiversity loss, which differed depending on the cocoa sector’s age in a country. Policies and development programs in all countries have focused on cocoa sector expansion and productivity increases, irrespective of smallholder needs for economically viable farming systems and existing market structures resulting in little bargaining power to farmers. Sustainability standards have spread unevenly and have converged in compliance criteria over time, although initially differing in focus. Recently added business and development criteria of sustainability standards can potentially address farmers’ concerns. Competing interests and interdependencies between different actors’ responses to concerns have so far not been openly acknowledged by public and private sector actors.

Article

Sustainable agriculture Indonesia Cameroon Peru Cocoa Sustainability Standards Issue-Attention Cycle Swing Potential Global Value Chain |Policy AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE COCOA INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Interfaces cerebrales para proporcionar neuroretroalimentación en apoyo a los problemas de atención en niños con autismo

Brain-Computer Interfaces to provide neurofeedback to support the attention problems of children with autism

José Carlos Mercado Chan (2019)

Se estima que la prevalencia a nivel mundial del autismo es de 1 por cada 59 niños. Estudios indican que 50-70% de los niños con autismo además tienen TDAH. Las habilidades de atención son críticas para el aprendizaje y el desarrollo apropiado, por lo que los problemas de atención interfieren en la eficacia cognitiva, socialización, salud, seguridad y calidad de vida de los niños con autismo. La neuroretroalimentación consiste en un entrenamiento para la autoregulación y control de la actividad cerebral, y se ha demostrado que puede utilizarse como una intervención para tratar los problemas de atención de los niños con autismo. Sin embargo, presentan algunas desventajas: generalmente involucra sistemas complejos y costosos, requiere el apoyo de un especialista con conocimientos clínicos y técnicos para usar el equipo y software necesario, y frecuentemente los niños con autismo encuentran las visualizaciones de la actividad cerebral muy abstractas y confusas. Como consecuencia, en el área de Interacción Humano-Computadora, se ha comenzado a explorar el uso de video-juegos BCI, para proporcionar una retroalimentación más comprensible y que ayude a mantener la atención del niño durante las sesiones de neuroretroalimentación; sin embargo, aún falta evidencia científica para respaldar como el uso de video-juegos BCI ayuda a mejorar la eficacia de la neuroretroalimentación en el caso de los niños con autismo. En esta tesis se describe el proceso de diseño, implementación y evaluación de FarmerKeeper, un video-juego BCI diseñado para apoyar sesiones de neuroretroalimentación de niños con autismo, controlado mediante un dispositivo BCI comercial. FarmerKeeper se diseñó utilizando una metodología centrada en el usuario y consiste en un video-juego BCI tipo corredor con temática de la granja que implementa las fases típicas de una sesión de neuroretroalimentación. El objetivo principal es mantener la atención del usuario por arriba de un umbral para controlar un personaje que va buscando los animales perdidos de la granja para regresarlos a sus corrales. Se realizó una evaluación formativa para evaluar la usabilidad y experiencia de uso de FarmerKeeper con un estudio intra-sujetos, donde participaron 12 niños con autismo. Después, se realizó una evaluación sumativa para evaluar la eficacia de FarmerKeeper, en términos de disminuir los problemas de atención de los niños con autismo, con un estudio entre-sujetos, donde participaron 26 niños con autismo, asistiendo ...

Worldwide, the prevalence of autism is estimated as 1 in 59 children. Studies indicate that 50-70% of children with autism also have ADHD. Since attention skills are critical for appropriate learning and development, attention problems interfere with the cognitive efficacy, socialization, health, safety, and quality of life of children with autism. Neurofeedback consists of training for self-regulation and control of brain activity, and it has been shown to be used as an intervention to treat the attention problems of children with autism. However, it has some disadvantages that usually involves complex and costly systems, requires the support of a specialist with clinical and technical knowledge to use the necessary equipment and software, and children with autism often find the visualizations of the brain activity too abstract and confusing. Consequently, in the area of Human-Computer Interaction, the use of BCI video games has begun to be explored to provide more understandable feedback and to help maintain the child's attention during neurofeedback sessions. Nevertheless, scientific evidence is still lacking to support how the use of BCI video games helps improve the effectiveness of neurofeedback in the case of children with autism. This thesis describes the process of designing, implementing, and evaluating FarmerKeeper, a BCI video game designed to support neurofeedback sessions of children with autism, controlled by a consumer-grade BCI device. FarmerKeeper was designed using a user-centered methodology and consists of a runner BCI video game with the topic of a farm that implements the typical phases of a neurofeedback session. The main objective of FarmerKeeper is to keep the user's attention above a threshold to control a character who is looking for lost farm animals to return them to their pens. A within-subjects study with 12 children with autism was conducted as a formative evaluation to evaluate the usability and user experience of FarmerKeeper. Then, a between-subjects study with 26 children with autism attending 13 neurofeedback sessions each one was conducted as a summative evaluation in order to evaluate the effectiveness of FarmerKeeper in terms of decreasing the attention problems of children with autism; one half of the participants using FarmerKeeper (experimental group), and the other half using Cartoons (control group). Pre-condition and post-condition measurements were made in both groups using a psychometric test and ...

Doctoral thesis

BCI, Interfaz cerebral, video-juego BCI, autismo, neuroretroalimentación, problemas de atención BCI, Brain-Computer Interface, BCI video game, autism, neurofeedback, attention problems INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS TECNOLÓGICAS TECNOLOGÍA DE LOS ORDENADORES SISTEMAS DE INFORMACIÓN, DISEÑO Y COMPONENTES SISTEMAS DE INFORMACIÓN, DISEÑO Y COMPONENTES