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Owl occurrence and calling behavior in a tropical rain forest

Ocurrencia de búhos y comportamiento del llamado en un bosque tropical lluvioso

Paula Enriquez (2001)

Resumen en español: "Estimamos la ocurrencia de búhos (número de individuos por km de transecto por noche) por medio de dos métodos, llamados espontáneos y provocación auditiva, con 12 repeticiones por cada método en 3 transectos de 2 km cada uno, en La Estación Biológica La Selva, Costa Rica de abril a septiembre de 1995. Otus vermiculatus (llamados 0.75 búhos/km y respuestas 0.89 búhos/km) y Lophostrix cristata (1.42 y 1.39) fueron especies comunes, Strix virgata (0.32 y 0.71) y S. nigrolineata (0.10 y 0.19) fueron poco comunes, y Pulsatrix perspicillata (0.06 y 0.03) y Glaucidium grisceiceps (0.03 y 0.04) fueron especies raras. Cuando realizamos comparaciones con reportes previos de ocurrencia de búhos en La Selva, nuestros resultados sugieren que esta ocurrencia ha estado cambiando en La Selva. El método de provocación auditiva incrementó significativamente las detecciones solo para S. virgata. Las detecciones vocales de todas las especies incrementaron cuando la iluminación disminuyó, aunque fue significativa solo para L. cristata y S. virgata. Las vocalizaciones de tres especies estuvieron asociadas significativamente con la fase lunar. La detección de los búhos incrementó durante períodos obscuros en días cercanos a luna llena (antes que la luna saliera o en días nublados). Por otro lado, O. vermiculatus fue significativamente detectado más en días lejanos al solsticio de verano, mientras que L. cristata y P. perspicillata fueron detectados más en días cercanos al solsticio de verano. Las detecciones de las especies de búhos decrecieron con el tiempo después del atardecer. Nuestros resultados sugieren cambios en las poblaciones de búhos y que la actividad vocal esta correlacionada con la actividad de otras especies, temporada y ciertas condiciones ambiental. "

Resumen en inglés: "We estimated owl occurrence (number of individuals per km of trail/night) from spontaneous calls and responses to broadcast vocalizations, during 12 repetitions of each method over 3 2-km nails from April-September 1995 at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. We found Vermiculated Screech-Owls (Otus vermiculatus, 0.75 owls/km) and Crested Owls (Lophostrix cristata, 1.42 owls/km) to be common, and Mottled Owls (Strix virgata, 0.32 owls/km) and Black-and-white Owls (S. nigrolineata, 0.10 owls/km) to be uncommon. Spectacled Owls (Pulsatrix perspicillata, 0.06 owls/km) and Central American Pygmy-Owls (Glaucidium griseiceps, 0.03 owls/km) were rare. When compared to earlier reports, our results suggested that owl occurrence has changed in recent years at La Selva Biological Station. Broadcast vocalizations significantly increased the detections of only Mottled Owls. Detections of all species increased when illumination was less, although this was statistically significant only for Crested and Mottled Owls. Three species were significantly associated with moon phase. Owl detections tended to be greater during darker periods when the moon was approximately full (either before moon rise or due to cloud cover). Significantly more Vermiculated Screech-Owls were detected away from the summer solstice, while significantly fewer Crested Owls and Spectacled Owls were detected away from the solstice. Detections decreased with time after official sunset, although this was statistically significant only for Spectacled Owls. Our results suggested that changes in owl calling activity was correlated with other species activity, the season of the year, and environmental conditions. "

Article

Búhos;Lechuzas;Aves;Conducta animal;Bosques tropicales Owls;Barn owl;Birds;Animal behavior;Tropical forests BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA

Stabilization of bed Inclination angle in rotary drums by using computer vision

CLAUDIA PATRICIA FLORES GUTIERREZ ANTONIO REYES OBANDO OCTAVIO ISRAEL RENTERIA VIDALES Alejandro Ricardo Femat Flores (2018)

"Computer vision systems have had great importance in research of different industrial processes. Videos and photographs have been used to characterize the bed behavior in a rotary drum; in this way, the bed motion, repose angles, trajectories, and particle velocity can be determined This work shows the development of a computer vision system that measures the bed inclination angle in industrial rotary drums. The purpose of the vision system is to capture the images when the angular velocity on the drum changes. Eventually, with the data measured during the two experiments in industrial rotary drums, we have identified two input-output models representing the slumping motion. Based on the control objective, we considered two approaches: regulation and tracking PI and PII2 controllers have been designed to show that a bed inclination angle can be stabilized for rolling motion considering plants that represent slumping motion and the inclination angle as the measured variable."

Article

Rotating drum Granular material Rolling bed Kilns Flow Motion Particles Behavior Solids Transition INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA INGENIERÍA Y TECNOLOGÍA

Management and welfare of working equids in the Guerrero state Manejo y bienestar de équidos de trabajo en el estado de Guerrero.

EDUARDO EZEQUIEL ROBLEDO REYES Mariano Hernández Gil saul Rojas Hernández Luis Miguel Camacho-Díaz Moises Cipriano Salazar Abel Villa_Mancera JAIME OLIVARES PEREZ (2020)

The management of farm work equids in Guerrero, Mexico was described and related to animal welfare. Sixty-four equids owners were randomly surveyed. Horses were used more than donkeys and mules. The 89% of owners worked the animals before 5 years of age. Only 5% provide helmet management. The 83% of breeders provide living space >4 m2 . In 53% of the units animals socialize. The 45% of breeders feed on forage and grain. The 59% of breeders give access to water 2-4 portions / day and 41% ad libitum. Deworming is partial (44%) and not vaccine is applied. The common diseases are skin lesions (84%), digestive system disorders (77%), respiratory (59%) and locomotor (44%). In conclusion, the management of equids compromises their well-being in different ways, reducing their quality of life.

Article

Health Feed Health Behavior Medicine CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA CIENCIAS AGRARIAS OTRAS ESPECIALIDADES AGRARIAS

Tiempo de separación madre-cría y comportamiento social de becerras holstein recién destetadas

Time separation cow-calf and social behavior of holstein heifer weanling

MARIA GUADALUPE TORRES CARDONA JOSE ISIDRO ALEJOS DE LA FUENTE FRANCISCO AURELIO GALINDO MALDONADO MARTIN AMADOR MEZA NIETO MIGUEL ANGEL SILVA SALAS (2018)

El efecto a largo plazo de la separación madre-cría en ganado lechero ha sido poco estudiado, no obstante que se ha descubierto que dicho efecto a corto plazo (pocas horas después de la separación) tiene serias repercusio-nes en el comportamiento y fisiología tanto de la madre como de la cría. Por lo anterior, en esta investigación se estudió el comportamiento social de 30 becerras Holstein destetadas (78 ±10 kg de peso y 79 ±7 días de edad), separadas previamente de sus madres a las 24 h post-parto (T1) o inmediatamente después del parto (T2), durante siete semanas. El tiempo de separación madre-cría no afectó el rango de jerarquía social de la cría en las siguientes siete semanas postdestete, ya que el análisis estadístico no mostró diferencias significa-tivas en el Índice de desplazamiento (IDO) e índice de éxito (IDE), tampoco en las variables conductuales. Sin embargo, algunos autores indican que dicho efecto puede mostrarse en la edad adulta, una vez que las crías han alcanzado su madurez sexual, por lo que más investigación al respecto es requerida

The long-term effect of mother-calf separation in dairy cattle has been little studied, even when it has been found that this effect has profound repercussions on the behavior and physiology of both mother and breeding in the short term (few hours after separation). Therefore, in this research, the social behavior of 30 Holstein heifer weanlings (78 ± 10 kg weight and 79 ± 7 days old), separated from their mothers at 24 h post-partum (T1) or immediately after deliv-ery (T2), was studied during seven weeks. The separation time cow-calf did not affect the range of social hierarchy breeding in the seven weeks after post-weaning, since no significant difference was found neither in the index shift (IDO) and success rate (IDE) nor in the behavioral variables. However, some authors indicate that this effect can be displayed in adulthood once the young have reached sexual maturity, so more research is needed

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA Separación madre-cría Comportamiento Productividad Separation cow-calf Behavior Productivity

Comparación de la ecología trófica del búho cornudo (Bubo virginianus) en una zona natural y una fragmentada del matorral desértico en Baja California Sur

CELIA ANGELICA MARTINEZ SARMIENTO (2015)

Uno de los efectos de la actividad humana por cambios del uso de la tierra es la fragmentación, que es un proceso en el cual un hábitat es reducido a fragmentos de tamaño variable dentro de una matriz distinta a la original. La fragmentación produce cambios que afectan a la fauna debido a la alteración de la disponibilidad de los recursos, modificando la estructura de las poblaciones y comunidades de plantas, de vertebrados e invertebrados, y como consecuencia también cambios funcionales en procesos ecológicos como las interacciones tróficas. Uno de los grupos en el que se ha estudiado el efecto de la fragmentación es el de las aves rapaces, por tener un papel importante dentro de las redes tróficas ya que regulan poblaciones de vertebrados e invertebrados. En aves rapaces nocturnas no existen estudios sobre los efectos de la fragmentación del hábitat, siendo el presente estudio novedoso, en el que se determinó si la fragmentación afecta a la composición de presas en la dieta del búho cornudo Bubo virginianus. Este trabajo se realizó en dos fases: 1. La fase de campo, que consistió en visitar durante la época reproductiva de 2014 los nidos previamente ubicados tanto en zona natural como fragmentada, en donde se colectaron restos regurgitados de las presas o egagrópilas; previamente se habían colectado egagrópilas en las épocas reproductivas de los años 2009, 2010 y 2013 en las dos zonas estudiadas. 2. La fase de laboratorio, consistió en que cada egagrópila se disgregó para separar los restos de las presas contenidas en las mismas; posteriormente, y con la ayuda de un microscopio estereoscópico, se identificaron y contabilizaron las estructuras de las presas como mandíbulas, maxilas, pelos, escamas, plumas y restos de insectos comparándolas con muestras de referencia del laboratorio del CIBNOR. Se analizaron un total de 592 egagrópilas en los 4 años de colecta en las dos zonas estudiadas, natural y fragmentada (141 egagrópilas en zona natural de 21 nidos y 451 en zona fragmentada de 48 nidos), siendo estos números de muestras adecuado para representar el patrón de riqueza y diversidad de presas consumidas por el búho cornudo según la curva de acumulación de especies por número de egagrópilas analizadas por año. Se identificaron un total de 2347 presas que correspondieron a 29 especies presa pertenecientes a 4 grupos faunísticos (mamíferos, aves, reptiles e invertebrados) [...]

Habitat fragmentation is one of the main results of land-use changes by human activity. It reduces the amount of habitat producing a number of patches with different size and with a variation in connectivity among them, inside a matrix of land different to the original. Habitat fragmentation changes resource availability modifying the plant species and community structure and then affecting invertebrate and vertebrate abundance and composition. These changes affect function in ecological processes, for example, trophic interactions. Although raptors are one of the groups where effects of habitat fragmentation have been evaluated, studies are few in spite of the role these predators have in trophic webs of ecosystems. No studies are available on the effects of habitat fragmentation in owls; thus this is a novel study where we aimed to evaluate the effects of habitat fragmentation on prey composition of the Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus. This work was conducted doing (1) Field work, visiting the owl nests during the 2014 breeding season and collecting pellets and prey remains at each nest and perches around the nest. These nests have been previously located both in natural and fragmented areas, and pellets were colected in the breeding seasons of 2009, 2010, and 2013 in all nests. (2) Laboratory analysis, where each pellet was broken in order to separate the prey remains they contained. Subsequently, prey species were identified and quantified using structures like mandibles, bones, hairs, feathers, scales and insect remains. These structures were compared with a reference collection of each species or taxa (e.g. reference collection at CIBNOR labotarory). A total of 592 pellets were analyzed for the 4 year sampling in the studied natural and fragmented areas (141 pellets from 21 nests of natural areas, and 451 from 48 nest in fragmented areas), this sample size is an adequate number to represent the trophic pattern in the diet of the Great Horned Owl in both natural and fragmented habitat conditions, according to the cumulative prey species curve/number of pellets. A total of 2347 preys were identified from 29 species of mammals, birds, reptiles and invertebrates [...]

Master thesis

Fragmentación; Bubo virginianus; Ecología Trófica BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA ANIMAL (ZOOLOGÍA) ECOLOGÍA ANIMAL

Genetic diversity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) genes in cattle breeds

DIANA LELIDETT LOURENCO JARAMILLO (2012)

DNA from four cattle breeds was used to re-sequence all of the exons and 56% of the introns of the bovine tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and 97% and 13% of the bovine dopamine -hydroxylase (DBH) coding and non-coding sequences, respectively. Two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a microsatellite motif were found in the TH sequences. The DBH sequences contained 62 nucleotide changes, including eight non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) that are of particular interest because they may alter protein function and therefore affect the phenotype. These DBH nsSNPs resulted in amino acid substitutions that were predicted to destabilize the protein structure. Six SNPs (one from TH and five from DBH non-synonymous SNPs) were genotyped in 140 animals; all of them were polymorphic and had a minor allele frequency of > 9%. There were significant differences in the intra- and inter-population haplotype distributions. The haplotype differences between Brahman cattle and the three B. t. taurus breeds (Charolais, Holstein and Lidia) were interesting from a behavioural point of view because of the differences in temperament between these breeds.

Article

CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA Behavior B. t. indicus B. t. taurus Catecholamine Temperament

Comportamiento de ganado bovino de doble propósito pastando sitios con cobertura arbórea

VICTOR MANUEL PEREZ HERNANDEZ (2012)

Teis (Maestría en Ciencias, especialista en AgroecosistemasTropicales).- Colegio de Postgraduados, 2012.

El objetivo fue evaluar el comportamiento y fisiología de ganado bovino de doble propósito pastando sitios con cobertura arbórea alta (CAA), baja (CAB) y sin cobertura (SCA), en las épocas de lluvia y sequía. Se observaron vacas adultas durante 24 días en cada época, registrando la temperatura corporal y los tiempos que dedicaron a las distintas actividades durante el día. Las vacas dedicaron el mismo tiempo al consumo en las lluvias (P > 0.05), sin embargo, hubo mayor tiempo en CAB durante la sequía (P < 0.0001). Durante las lluvias, las vacas en pastoreo bajo CAA mostraron menor motivación de irse al descanso o iniciar la rumia (P<0.001), y mayor hacia la exploración que en otros tratamientos (P<0.001); durante la sequía, aquellas pastando en CAA y CAB también mostraron menor motivación a iniciar el descanso que en SCA (P < 0.001). También, bajo CAA hubo mayor motivación para pasar del pastoreo a la exploración y menor motivación de la rumia al descanso que en CAB y SCA (P < 0.001). La frecuencia en la toma de agua fue mayor en la sequía (P < 0.001), y siempre más alta en SCA (P < 0.0001). La temperatura corporal no difirió entre tratamientos durante las lluvias (P = 0.261), sin embargo, durante la sequía fue mayor en SCA (P < 0.001). La cobertura arbórea mejora el comportamiento del ganado, modificando positivamente la motivación para realizar el pastoreo y distribuir sus actividades durante el día, lo cual contribuye a disminuir su temperatura corporal durante la época de mayor temperatura. _______________ BEHAVIOR OF DUAL PURPOSE CATTLE GRAZING IN SITES WITH TREE COVER. ABSTRACT: The objective was to evaluate the behavior and physiology of dual purpose cattle grazing in sites with high tree cover (HC), low tree cover (LC) and without tree cover (NC) during the rainy and dry seasons. Adult cows were observed over 24 days during each season, registering the body temperature and times dedicated to different activities during the day. Across treatments, the cows dedicated the same amount of time to consumption during the rainy season (P > 0.05), but cows in LC spent more time during the dry season (P < 0.0001). During the rainy season, the cows in HC showed less motivation to rest or to begin ruminating (P < 0.001), and more toward exploring than in other treatments (P < 0.001). During the dry season, cows in HC and LC also showed low motivation to initiate rest than in NC (P < 0.001). Cows in HC had greater motivation to transition from grazing to exploration and less motivation to pass from rumination to rest than cows in LC and NC (P < 0.001). The frequency of water consumption was greater during the dry season (P < 0.001), and always high in NC (P < 0.0001). Body temperature did not differ among treatments during the rainy season (P = 0.261), but during the dry season it was greater in NC (P < 0.001). Tree cover improves behavior of the cows, positively modifying the motivation to graze and distribute activities over the day, which contributes to reduced body temperature during hotter seasons of the year.

Master thesis

Comportamiento Cobertura arbórea Ganado bovino Estrés calórico Behavior Tree cover Cattle Heat stress Agroecosistemas tropicales Maestría CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Acrylamide acute neurotoxicity in adult zebrafish

Melissa Faria Tamar Ziv Cristian Gómez-Canela SHANI BEN LULU Eva Prats KAREN ADRIANA NOVOA LUNA Arie Admon Benjamin Piña Roma Tauler Leobardo Manuel Gómez Olivan Demetrio Raldua (2018)

Un articulo indexado

Acute exposure to acrylamide (ACR), a type-2 alkene, may lead to a ataxia, skeletal muscles weakness and numbness of the extremities in human and laboratory animals. In the present manuscript, ACR acute neurotoxicity has been characterized in adult zebrafish, a vertebrate model increasingly used in human neuropharmacology and toxicology research. At behavioral level, ACR-treated animals exhibited “depression-like” phenotype comorbid with anxiety behavior. At transcriptional level, ACR induced down-regulation of regeneration-associated genes and up-regulation of oligodendrocytes and reactive astrocytes markers, altering also the expression of genes involved in the presynaptic vesicle cycling. ACR induced also significant changes in zebrafish brain proteome and formed adducts with selected cysteine residues of specific proteins, some of them essential for the presynaptic function. Finally, the metabolomics analysis shows a depletion in the monoamine neurotransmitters, consistent with the comorbid depression and anxiety disorder, in the brain of the exposed fish.

Conacyt

Article

acrylamide zebra fish behavior BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA

Pilot study and key feasibility factors of a staff training intervention and reduction of antipsychotic prescription practice in Mexican urban care homes study protocol

SARA TORRES CASTRO MARIANA LOPEZ ORTEGA ADRIAN MARTINEZ RUIZ LUIS MIGUEL FRANCISCO GUTIERREZ ROBLEDO Dr Azucena Guzman (2018)

In a context of rapid population ageing and increase in chronic illnesses including dementia in Mexico, there is a need to develop long-term care strategies in order to improve the quality of life, people affected by dementia and the people that care for them. In 2015, the prevalence of dementia in Mexico was 6.1% and it is estimated to reach to over 1.5 million by the year 2030, posing a great challenge to formal and informal caregivers. In 2014, Mexico developed a Dementia Strategy National Plan (Plan de Acción Alzheimer y otras demencias) and the objectives eight and nine of it aims to train the care work force on non-pharmacological and health professionals in care homes, and improve the appropriate antipsychotic prescription to treat challenging behavior respectively. Previous UK-based studies have been successful in training staff and health professionals by optimizing the prescription of antipsychotic medication and by implementing psychosocial interventions to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms associated to dementia. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop PROCUIDA-Demencia (in Spanish: Programa para el Cuidado Optimo en Demencia), a staff training package. Methods: A randomized controlled mixed methods feasibility study in eight care homes (N=500 beds approximately). The goal of the study is to investigate a set of interventions to promote psychosocial activities and review antipsychotic medication to treat Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of dementia. This is a twelve weeks and follow up study that involves the development of the staff training package for Mexican care homes (PROCUIDA-Demencia) based on two arms: Staff Training with PROCUIDA-Demencia vs Treatment as Usual (TAU). Conclusions: If feasible, PROCUIDA-Demencia Staff Training Model could be developed in a larger an easy-to-use set of therapies that benefit cognition, behavior, mood and quality of life in individuals with Dementia, and to staff in care homes across Mexico. It is expected that the results will provide the base for establishing a larger randomised control trial.

Article

MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA Demencia Antipsicóticos Comportamiento Educación Residencias Dementia Antipsychotic Agents Behavior Education Housing for the Elderly