Author: YISA MARIA OCHOA FUENTES

Variabilidad genetica y patogenica de phytophthora cinnamomi rands en Michoácan México

YISA MARIA OCHOA FUENTES (2006)

"El trabajo de investigación se realizó en la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro en Saltillo, en el Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV-IPN) Unidad Irapuato y el Centro de Ciencias Químico Biológicas de la Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo en el periodo de Marzo del año 2003 a Julio del año 2005. Teniendo como objetivo determinar los grupos de compatibilidad sexual, variabilidad genética, y patogénica de aislados de Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands obtenidos de la región productora de aguacate de Michoacán, México. Se determinó la presencia de los grupos de compatibilidad sexual A1 y A2 de P. cinnamomi, en 25 aislados obtenidos de cinco localidades del estado de Michoacán, México. Los aislados se confrontaron en medio jugo V8-agar clarificado, se determinó la producción de oosporas. Se identificó el grupo de compatibilidad sexual A1 mediante PCR, usando el iniciador OPS-13, el cuál amplifica una banda de 2.7 kb. Se identificaron seis aislados como grupo de compatibilidad sexual A1 y 19 aislados A2; sin embrago de los aislados A1, solo uno produjo oosporas al confrontarse con el restos de los aislamientos. Una vez determinados los grupos de compatibilidad sexual, se realizó un segundo muestreo obteniendo 42 aislados, a las cuales se les determinó variabilidad genética utilizando polimorfismos de ADN amplificados al azar (RAPDs) y polimorfismos de la longitud de los fragmentos amplificados (AFLP). En RAPDs, se utilizaron 21 oligonucleótidos de 10 bases, los cuales mostraron un total de 23 bandas. Para AFLP, las amplificaciones mostraron 296 bandas; el análisis en ambos casos consistió en la obtención de la matriz de disimilaridades genéticas utilizando el coeficiente de apareamiento múltiple y el método del promedio no ponderado, para la obtención del dendograma. Los aislados se clasificaron dentro de dos grupos principales; asociados con la localización geográfica de la cual fueron obtenidos los aislados. El análisis y la determinación de los niveles de confianza muestran que estas agrupaciones geográficas son extremadamente fuertes. Se seleccionaron ocho variantes genéticas de P. cinnamomi, obteniendo el inóculo a partir de cepas en crecimiento activo en medio de cultivo V-8 agar clarificado. inoculando nueve plantas de aguacate, con cada una de las variantes genéticas y las plantas testigo fueron tratadas con agua destilada estéril. Se determinó la incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad, esta última en base a la escala propuesta por Zentmyer (1984). Los datos fueron analizados por medio del análisis multivariado utilizando el programa SAS (Statistical Analysis System). Las pruebas de medias fueron realizadas por Tukey al 0.05. La incidencia de P. cinnamomi en las plantas de aguacate, presentó diferencia significativa en la cepa C4 con respecto al Testigo. Referente a severidad, de acuerdo al análisis se obtuvo que las cepas C6 , C7 y C8 provenientes de Uruapan y Peribán murieron al final del experimento; mientras que las cepas C3, C4 y C5 presentaron solamente daños severos y las cepas C1 y C2 de Salvador Escalante ambas presentaron un daño moderad; por lo que este estudio demostró la variabilidad genética y patogénica que presentan cepas de Phytophthora cinnamomi obtenidas en poblaciones a 60 kilómetros de distancia."

"The research work was conducted at “ Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro” in Saltillo, jointly with the Research Center of Advanced Studies (CINVESTAV-IPN), Irapuato and the Center of Biochemical Sciences of “Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo” from March 2003 to July 2005. The purpose of this work was to determine the sexual compatibility groups, as well as the genetic and pathogenic variability of Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands’ isolates, obtained from Michoacan, an avocado producing region in Mexico. The presence of the sexual compatibility groups A1 and A2 of P. cinnamomi, was determined in 25 isolates obtained from 5 different localities of Michoacan state, Mexico. The isolates were challenged in V8 juice- clarified agar culture medium. The oospores production was determined. A1 sexual compatibility group was identified using PCR and the initiator OPS-13, which amplifies a band of 2.7 kb. Six isolates were identified within sexual compatibility group A 1, while 19 isolates belonged to A2. However in A1, only one isolate produced oospores when being challenged with the rest of the isolates. After the sexual compatibility groups had been determined, a second sampling process was conducted on 42 isolates. Their genetic variability was determined using Random Amplified Polymorphisms of DNA (RAPDs) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP). 21 oligonucleotides of 10 bases were used in RAPDs, showing a total of 23 bands. In AFLP, the amplifications showed 296 bands. The trial in both cases used the genetic dissimilarity matrix by means of the multiple coupling method and the non-weighed average methods, to obtain the dendogram. The isolates were classified in two main groups that were associated with the geographical location from which they were obtained. The analysis and determination of the confidence levels demonstrate that these geographical groupings are extremely strong. Eight genetic variations of P. cinnamomi were identified from the inoculums obtained from the strains that were actively growing in the V-8- clarified agar culture medium. Nine avocado plants were inoculated with each genetic variation and the check plants were treated with sterile water. Incidence and severity of the disease were determined, using Zentmyer (1984) proposed scale in the severity test. A multi-variable analysis was applied to the data using SAS (Statistical Analysis System). Mean trials were conducted using Tukey’s mean at 0.05. P. Cinnamomi’s incidence in avocado plants presented a significant difference when strain C4 was compared against the check test. The severity analysis revealed that strains C6 , C7 and C8 from Uruapan and Peribam died at the end of the experiment, while strains C3, C4 and C5 showed severe damage only and strains C1 and C2 from Salvador Escalante suffered moderate damage. Therefore, the study demonstrated the existence of genetic and pathogenic variability in strains of Phytophthora cinnamomi obtained from places located at 60 kilometers of distance."

Doctoral thesis

Aguacate Variabilidad Cosecha Producción CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Insecticide-resistance ratios of three populations of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae) in regions of northern Mexico

OMEGAR HERNÁNDEZ BAUTISTA ERNESTO CERNA CHÁVEZ JERÓNIMO LANDEROS FLORES LUIS ALBERTO AGUIRRE URIBE YISA MARIA OCHOA FUENTES (2012)

"El pulgón saltador, Bactericera cockerelli Šulc (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae), es una plaga importante afectando las regiones paperas y productoras de chile del Norte de México por los daños directos e indirectos que ocasiona. Su control está basado en la aplicación de insecticidas, sin tener conocimiento de la tolerancia o resistencia para el manejo eficiente de esta plaga. Por lo que, esta investigación tiene como objetivo determinar la proporción de resistencia de diferentes poblaciones B. cockerelli provenientes de regiones productoras del Norte de México. Se recolectaron tres poblaciones de campo de B. cockerelli (Coahuila-Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, y Aguascalientes) y se compararon con una línea susceptible de laboratorio. Los resultados indicaron que la población de Aguascalientes presentaron una proporción de resistencia de: 1.69, 1.26 y 1.00 veces para los insecticidas abamectina, endosulfan, e imidacloprid respectivamente, para la población San Luis Potosí los valores fueron de: 10.72, 2.52 y 3.75 veces y para la población Coahuila-Nuevo León: 2.57, 3.75 y 4.22 para los mismos insecticidas respectivamente. Por lo que se concluye que la población de San Luis potosí, presentó problemas de resistencia al insecticida abamectina, al igual que la de Coahuila-Nuevo-León; el resto de los insecticidas mostraron susceptibilidad."

" Bactericera cockerelli Šulc (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae), also known as the potato psyllid, is a pest of pepper and potato crops in northern Mexico. Growers control it by applying insecticides, without knowing the tolerance or resistance levels to these pesticides. The goal of this study was to determine the resistance ratios of several populations of B. cockerelli from regions of northern Mexico. Three populations of B. cockerelli were collected from sample sites at Coahuila-Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, and Aguascalientes and compared with a laboratory susceptible line. Results indicated that populations from Aguascalientes had resistance ratios of 1.69-, 1.26-, and 1.00-fold for the insecticides abamectin, endosulfan, and imidacloprid, respectively. The corresponding ratios were 10.72-, 2.52-, and 3.75-fold for the San Luis Potosí population and 2.57-, 3.75-, and 4.22-fold for the Coahuila-Nuevo León population. We conclude that the B. cockerelli population of only San Luis Potosí was resistant to abamectin, but that the other 2 populations were susceptible to it. All 3 populations were fairly susceptible to endosulfan and imidacloprid."

Article

Resistencia Pulgón saltador Solanáceas CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Fast detection of auxins by microplate technique

JULIA CECILIA ANGUIANO CABELLO ALBERTO FLORES OLIVAS YISA MARIA OCHOA FUENTES ROBERTO ARREDONDO VALDÉZ LIDIA VALDÉZ SEPÚLVEDA (2017)

" Plant growth promotion Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most abundant natural auxin that plays diverse roles in plant growth, development and plant immunity. Perturbing auxin homeostasis appears to be a common virulence mechanism, as many pathogens can synthesize auxin-like molecules (Spoel and Dong, 2008). In other hand, the addition of plant growth promotion rhizobacterias (PGPR) that are able to produce auxins promote plant growth and provide protection against pathogens. Techniques as HPLC and GC are used to quantify auxins produced by microorganism and plants at high precision and sensitivity, eventhough those technique are expensive and requires big amount of solvents. For these reason, the aim of the present study was developed a fast microplate technique for auxin detection, in Bacillus subtilis strains using salkowski reagent. For auxin quantification were done calibration curves with alcohol, landy medium and water and the R2 were calculated. The microplate techniques were able to quantify auxin production by B. subtillis stains."

Article

Bacillus Subtilis Auxin Microplate CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Respuesta funcional de Phytoseiulus persimilis sobre Oligonychus punicae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) en hojas de aguacate

OMAR GARCIA ANGEL ERNESTO CERNA CHÁVEZ LUIS ALBERTO AGUIRRE URIBE YISA MARIA OCHOA FUENTES JULIO CÉSAR CHACÓN HERNÁNDEZ JERÓNIMO LANDEROS FLORES (2017)

"Se evaluó la respuesta funcional de Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot, 1957) sobre diferentes densidades y estados de desarrollo del ácaro del aguacate Oligonychus punicae (Hirst, 1926) bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Los resultados muestran nula depredación en el estado de huevo, mientras que para el resto de los estados, el depredador exhibió una respuesta funcional tipo II. El máximo consumo de P. persimilis sobre O. punicae fue en promedio de 23.4 y 14.67 para larvas y ninfas respectivamente a una densidad de 64 presas ofrecidas, mientras que el máximo promedio de consumo en hembras adultas de O. punicae fue de 6.07 adultos a una densidad de 16 adultos hembra ofrecidos. Los resultados de la depredación muestran que P. persimilis puede ser utilizado como un agente de control biológico."

"Functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot, 1957) at different densities and developmental stages of the mite of Oligonychus punicae (Hirst, 1926) under laboratory conditions was evaluated. Results show no predation in the egg state, whereas for the other stages, the predator exhibited a type II functional response. Average consumption of P. persimilis over O. punicae was 23.4 and 14.67 for larvae and nymphs respectively at a density of 64 prey offered, while the maximum average consumption in adult females of O. punicae was 6.07 adults at a density of 16 female adults offered. The results of predation obtained, concluded that P. persimilis can be used as a biocontrol agent."

Article

Control biológico Aguacate Respuesta Funcional Oligonychus punicae Phytoseiulus persimilis CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Compatibilidad de diferentes insecticidas sobre Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) y Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

JORGE LUIS VEGA CHÁVEZ ERNESTO CERNA CHÁVEZ MARIANO FLORES DAVILA YISA MARIA OCHOA FUENTES JERÓNIMO LANDEROS FLORES LUIS ALBERTO AGUIRRE URIBE OMEGAR HERNÁNDEZ BAUTISTA YESSICA ABIGAIL ALVARADO CEPEDA (2017)

Todos los productos evaluados en este trabajo reportaron mortalidad sobre el parasitoide T. triozae, pero los que destacan por su toxicidad son insecticidas químicos seguido de los insecticidas de origen botánico y por último los de origen biológico.

Article

Producción de Planta. CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Interaction between helicoverpa zea damage with corncub diseases on genetically modified corn in Sinaloa, Mexico

LUIS ALBERTO AGUIRRE URIBE AGUSTIN HERNANDEZ JUAREZ GUSTAVO ALBERTO FRIAS TREVIÑO MARIANO FLORES DAVILA ERNESTO CERNA CHÁVEZ JERÓNIMO LANDEROS FLORES YISA MARIA OCHOA FUENTES (2014)

"GM (genetically modified) corn with the CrylAb. mC3Aand Vip3A20 protein of Bt ( Bacillus thuringienesis ) and itsrespective isoline as control with andwithout chemicalcontrolfor corn carworn werw used in thisresearch. Fusarium corncob damague was lower on GM corn with (12.5 %and without (25.7%) insecticide treatmenas compared witthe isoline that had40.3% and 83.1 % of damaged corncobs with (12.5)and without (25.7% insecticide treatment as compared with the isoline that had 48.3% with (3.2% ) and without(6.3%insect control.respectively, Ustilago maydisseverity was also lower on Bt corn finding 0.07% and 0.25% damageon treatments withand without insect control as compared the isoline that shwedan 11.6% and a 41.4%smut rotwith and without insecticidetreatment. respectively. The authors conclude that GM corn resistantto Helicoverpa zea prevents damageby the pest, eliminating the entrance patway for Fusarium sp. and Ustilago maydis."

Article

Cornsmut Transgeneric Fusarium Bacillus thuringlensis CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Review of antibacterial activity of plant exctacts and growth-promoting microorganims (GPM) against phytopat hogenic bacterial tomato crop

ROBERTO ARREDONDO VALDES FRANCISCO DANIEL HERNÁNDEZ CASTILLO JULIA CECILIA ANGUIANO CABELLO YISA MARIA OCHOA FUENTES GABRIEL GALLEGOS MORALES DIANA JASSO CANTU CRISTÓBAL NOÉ AGUILAR GONZÁLEZ (2018)

"Tomato is the second vegetable more important crop in the world, but has problems with bacterial phytopathogen that causes economic losses. The effectiveness of bioalternatives for controlling phytopathogen bacterial tomato disease is importance nowadays. Scientists are working on the development of new techniques for bioalternatives to control bacterial tomato diseases trying to avoid the traditional chemical control, because side effects can affect human health and causes damage at environment. In this review summarizes the alternatives compounds of some extract plants, as well as some compounds by Bacillus used as plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria, and some compounds by Trichoderma like an plant-growth promoting fungi."

Article

Agrobiotechnology Plant-extracts Beneficial-microorganism, Tomato CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA

Systemic resistance induction by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) in solanum tuberosum

EPIFANIO CASTRO DEL ANGEL FRANCISCO DANIEL HERNÁNDEZ CASTILLO ROBERTO ARREDONDO VALDES ESMERALDA GONZALEZ GALLEGOS YISA MARIA OCHOA FUENTES GABRIEL GALLEGOS MORALES (2017)

"Currently many studies have been made on the use of natural products as substitutes for chemical control, due to possible ecological and economic advantages that many of these compounds offer, especially in crop protection. Many natural products have compounds with the ability to stimulate defense mechanisms in plants; defense reactions to the nearest tissue infection are restricted in some cases, resistance induction is associated to the expression of some defense genes, such as those coding for proteins linked to the pathogenesis. For example phenylalanine ammonia lyase and synthesis phytoalexins are highly toxic compounds to the pathogen. On the other hand the increase of peroxidases, can increase the mechanical strength of the host cells walls, inhibiting or possibly restricting a pathogen invasion. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of the PGPR consortium at 6, 12 and 24 hours after application, against Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani, determined by leaf tissue, quantification of protein and enzyme activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and peroxidase. The results presented in this paper clearly demonstrated the potential of the PGPR consortium strains to activate resistance against F. oxysporum or R. solani."

Article

Bacillus spp Fusarium oxysporum Rhizoctonia solani Potato Systemic resistance CIENCIAS AGROPECUARIAS Y BIOTECNOLOGÍA