Author: JESUS SALVADOR JAIME FERRER

Two-compartment bipolar membrane electrodialysis for splitting of sodium formate into formic acid and sodium hydroxide: Modelling

JESUS SALVADOR JAIME FERRER (2013)

The aim of this work is to model the two-compartment bipolar membrane electrodialysis for organic salts acidification. The salt studied is sodium formate which splits into formic acid and sodium hydroxide thanks to water splitting by bipolar membrane. The contamination of sodium hydroxide by formate ion is due to diffusion of molecular formic acid through the bipolar membrane and to leakage of formate ion through the same membrane under the applied current. The cation-exchange membrane does not participate to contamination of sodium hydroxide. But the leakage of hydroxide ion through the cation-exchange membrane is the major factor that influences the current efficiency of electrodialysis. The average current efficiency decreases with time principally because the sodium hydroxide concentration increases. The development of a membrane with limited hydroxide leakage is desirable.

Article

Membranas (Tecnología) Electrodiálisis BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA QUÍMICA QUÍMICA FÍSICA FENÓMENOS DE MEMBRANA FENÓMENOS DE MEMBRANA

Three compartment bipolar membrane electrodialysis of sodium formate

JESUS SALVADOR JAIME FERRER (2013)

Bipolar membrane electrodialysis is used in three compartment configuration to regenerate formic acid and sodium hydroxide from sodium formate. The preceding study [7] showed that diffusion of molecular formic acid is responsible of the loss of acid current efficiency. The present study shows the following results: the diffusion of molecular formic acid through the bipolar membrane explains quantitatively the presence of sodium formate in the sodium hydroxide solution. The loss of acid current efficiency is due to diffusion of molecular acid through both anion exchange and bipolar membranes. The sodium hydroxide current efficiency is determined by acid diffusion through the bipolar membrane and OH- leakage through the cation exchange membrane. The flux of acid diffusion in the membranes is proportional to acid concentration. The transfer coefficients vary with the temperature.

A model based on mass balance is proposed to describe the electrodialysis. Some experimental parameters like volume variations are needed. It is seen that, following the model, a low temperature is favourable to the process. So does an increase of current density. The nature of anion exchange membrane also affects diffusion. It is found that PC acid 100 membrane is the less permeable to formic acid among 5 tested membranes. The flux of hydroxide ion through the CMB cation exchange membrane is evaluated.

Article

Membranas (Tecnología) Electrodiálisis BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA QUÍMICA QUÍMICA FÍSICA FENÓMENOS DE MEMBRANA FENÓMENOS DE MEMBRANA

Electrodeposition of ZnO window layer for an all-atmospheric fabrication process of chalcogenide solar cell

JESUS SALVADOR JAIME FERRER (2015)

This paper presents the low cost electrodeposition of a transparent and conductive chlorine doped ZnO layer with performances comparable to that produced by standard vacuum processes. First, an in-depth study of the defect physics by ab-initio calculation shows that chlorine is one of the best candidates to dope the ZnO.

This result is experimentally confirmed by a complete optical analysis of the ZnO layer deposited in a chloride rich solution. We demonstrate that high doping levels (.1020 cm23) and mobilities (up to 20 cm2 V21 s21) can be reached by insertion of chlorine in the lattice. The process developed in this study has been applied on a CdS/Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 p-n junction produced in a pilot line by a non vacuum process, to be tested as solar cell front contact deposition method. As a result efficiency of 14.3% has been reached opening the way of atmospheric production of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 solar cell.

Article

Células solares Calcogenuros BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA CELULAR MORFOLOGÍA CELULAR MORFOLOGÍA CELULAR

Electrochemical determination of acidity level and dissociation of formic acid-water mixtures as solvent

JESUS SALVADOR JAIME FERRER (2012)

The autoprotolysis constant KHS of formic acid/water mixtures as solvent has been calculated from acid-base potentiometric titration curves. A correlation of the acidity scale pKHS of each media vs. that of pure water has been implemented owing to the electrochemical redox function R°(H+) of Strehlow. The results show that formic acid/water mixtures are much more dissociated than pure water; they are sufficiently dissociated media to allow electrochemical measures without addition of an electrolyte. It has also been shown that for a same H+ concentration the activity of protons increases when formic acid concentration grows. For more than 80% by weight of formic acid the acidity is sufficiently increased so that the whole acidity scale pKHS is in the super acid medium of the generalized acidity scale pHH2O.

Article

Electroquímica Química física BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA QUÍMICA QUÍMICA FÍSICA ELECTROQUÍMICA ELECTROQUÍMICA

Rapid thermal processing of CuInSe2 electroplated precursors for CuIn(S,Se)2-based thin film solar cells

JESUS SALVADOR JAIME FERRER (2018)

During the elaboration of standard CISEL™ cells, electroplated CuInSe2 precursors undergo a rapid thermal processing (RTP) in a sulfur-containing atmosphere to promote grain growth and enable sulfurization of the precursor. The aim of this work is to show how structural and morphological properties of the CuIn(S,Se)2-based solar cells can be modified with RTP parameters, namely temperature, heating rate, and sulfur addition. X-ray diffractograms show that the preferential (112) orientation of the electrodeposited CuInSe2 precursor is maintained after annealing but the coefficient of crystallographic texture can be modified with specific RTP parameters. It is also shown that the quantity of sulfur incorporated in the chalcopyrite lattice can be controlled and reaches almost pure CuInS2 according to the sulfur quantity used during the RTP. Another effect of the RTP annealing is to form a Mo(S,Se)2 layer which can lead to a quasi-ohmic contact between the molybdenum and the absorber. The properties of the Mo(S,Se)2 buffer layer are also studied according to the process parameters and an increase of the annealing temperature or of the sulfur concentration tends to increase the thickness of this layer.

Article

Células solares Calcopirita BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA BIOLOGÍA CELULAR MORFOLOGÍA CELULAR MORFOLOGÍA CELULAR