Author: Briseida Lopez Alvarez

Assessing the source and spatial distribution of chemical composition of a rift lake, using multivariate statistical, hydrogeochemical modeling and remote sensing

Cristina Noyola Medrano Jose Alfredo Ramos_Leal Briseida Lopez Alvarez Janete Morán-Ramírez ROSA MARIA FUENTES RIVAS (2019)

"The chemical composition of a freshwater surface depends on the sources of input that can be of natural or anthropogenic origin. This study examined the spatial variability of the water quality from Chapala Lake and discussed the possible sources to this freshwater surface which is the largest rift lake in Mexico. The methodology included multivariate statistical techniques to analyze the possible relationship between water quality and the natural and anthropogenic factors of the area. The outcome showed the existence of four groups of water mixture in the lake. Each one showed two or three end members that characterized its chemical nature. The different groups showed a spatial distribution and a particular spectral behavior was detected from the analysis of a Landsat 7 ETM+ image. The spectral signatures extracted from the satellite image showed a high reflectivity in the range of 830 - 1300 nm for the water provided by the Lerma-Chapala (group IV) system, which represents the most polluted water in the lake. This spectral behavior is not present in the rest of the group. The Western portion of the lake is fed mainly by open water. Contributions from groundwater dominate the Central part, and in the Eastern region, the primary source is the contaminated water from the Lerma river system. A high hydraulic head (hydraulic barrier) prevents the highest level of pollution from the Lerma river. This hydraulic barrier constituted by a significant portion of groundwater is at the Central part of the lake. Furthermore, the most polluted water flows directly to the Metropolitan Region of Guadalajara through the Santiago river. The predominant role played by the groundwater in the dynamics of Chapala Lake is explained, in part, from its tectonic origin. The dynamics of water in the Chapala Lake suggest the need to implement some management plans considering the tectonic origin of the Lake as an advantage for the control of pollution because of the significant contribution of groundwater in the Chapala Lake freshwater system."

Article

Agua -- Chapala, Lago de Agua – Calidad - Chapala, Lago de BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA OTRAS ESPECIALIDADES DE LA BIOLOGÍA OTRAS ESPECIALIDADES DE LA BIOLOGÍA

Water Poverty Index In Subtropical Zones: The Case Of Huasteca Potosina, Mexico

Briseida Lopez Alvarez GERMAN SANTACRUZ DE LEON Jose Alfredo Ramos_Leal Janete Morán-Ramírez (2015)

"Tools are needed in order to evaluate an integrated water resource management, and to encourage the management and coordinated usage of water resources along with the environmental and socioeconomic factors. One of those tools is the Water Poverty Index (WPI), which enables the evaluation of water poverty in terms of the physical and socioeconomic factors related to water availability. The WPI, as calculated in this study, is derived from the weighted sum of six key components –resources, access, usage, capacity, quality and environment– on a scale of 0 to 100. The objective of this work wasto calculate the Río Valles Basin WPI for 2010. Thisregion is a semi-tropical area with abundant water resources, such as large springs. Its annual mean precipitation is 1100 mm. In the Río Valles Basin, the volume of surface water used per year is 81.33 Mm3, which represents 91 % of the total resource. The volume of groundwater used per year is 8.17 Mm3, representing the remaining 9 %. Usually 45 Mm3/year is stored in La Lajilla dam. These data indicate that surface water is the main source of supply for usessuch as agriculture, which isthe activity with the largest water demand. A WPI score of 59 was obtained for the Río Valles Basin."

Article

Calidad de el agua – México – San Luis Potosí Agua – Abastecimiento – México – San Luis Potosí BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA OTRAS ESPECIALIDADES DE LA BIOLOGÍA OTRAS ESPECIALIDADES DE LA BIOLOGÍA

Subsidence associated with land use changes in urban aquifers with intensive extraction

Briseida Lopez Alvarez Jose Alfredo Ramos_Leal GERMAN SANTACRUZ DE LEON Janete Morán-Ramírez Simon Eduardo Carranco Lozada Cristina Noyola Medrano (2013)

"Land use change is a major factor in alterations in natural processes and cycles. Remote sensing has become an excellent tool to evaluate technological changes in land cover and land use changes over large areas, such as those occurring in the Valley of San Luis Potosi (VSLP). Here, such changes have impacted a system which is 95% dependent on the aquifer. The methodology for the present study is based on the use of satellite images for the years 1976, 1986, 1995 and 2000. To asses land use change, a supervised classification process was used with a decision tree technique and ENVI 4.3 software. The evolution of groundwater levels for the years 1977, 1986, 1995, 1998 and 2007 was also analyzed, as well as problems of subsidence and fissuring in the urban area of the valley in 2006. With the support of remote sensing, it was possible to analyze the dynamic changes in land use over large areas and highlight their impact on the environment."

Article

Agua – Análisis Suelos – México BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA OTRAS ESPECIALIDADES DE LA BIOLOGÍA OTRAS ESPECIALIDADES DE LA BIOLOGÍA

Comportamiento hidrogeoquímico de flujos subterráneos en acuíferos cársticos fracturados, aplicando modelación inversa: Caso Huasteca Potosina

Janete Morán-Ramírez Jose Alfredo Ramos_Leal Briseida Lopez Alvarez Simon Eduardo Carranco Lozada GERMAN SANTACRUZ DE LEON (2013)

"El área de estudio se encuentra dentro de la Plataforma Valles-San Luis Potosí la cual pertenece a la Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO), cuya porción montañosa formada por anticlinales y sinclinales tienen una orientación preferencial NW-S y un sistema muy importante de fallas y fracturas con orientación E-W que controlan el flujo subterráneo hacia el Golfo de México. Para demostrar la conectividad hidráulica del sistema de fallas y fracturas E-W, se aplicó modelación inversa en cuatro secciones, otras pruebas realizadas a posibles conexiones entre fracturas no fueron capaces de reproducir estos procesos, lo que se interpreta como puntos sin conexión hidráulica. Se identificaron dos principales tipos de agua: uno bicarbonatado cálcico debido a interacción con rocas carbonatadas como las calizas y otro sulfatado cálcico que se relaciona con un proceso de interacción agua-roca, principalmente de origen evaporítico como los yesos. En el trayecto de Rioverde a Santa Anita, el agua subterránea disminuye su composición química debido a un proceso de dilución por mezcla con otras aguas de reciente infiltración o menos evolucionadas por lo que sus parámetros fisicoquímicos disminuyen. El flujo subterráneo de Apesco a Huichihuayan muestra un incremento en sus parámetros fisicoquímicos debido a la disolución de yeso, calcedonia y dolomita; así como, precipitación de anhidrita, aragonita, calcita, halita y celestita. La evolución hidrogeoquímica de Unión de Guadalupe a Tambaque muestra un incremento de los parámetros fisicoquímicos por la disolución de calcita, fluorita, halita, sílice, azufre; así como, precipitación de dolomita. En la sección El Salto- Minas Viejas, se relaciona con la disolución de calcita, pirita y cuarzo, junto con la precipitación de celestita, dolomita, FeS, yeso, halita y jarosita."

Article

Agua -- Análisis Agua – Calidad BIOLOGÍA Y QUÍMICA CIENCIAS DE LA VIDA OTRAS ESPECIALIDADES DE LA BIOLOGÍA OTRAS ESPECIALIDADES DE LA BIOLOGÍA